September 11th, Global Terrorism and War on Terrorism - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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September 11th, Global Terrorism and War on Terrorism


... a thousand leaflets Various Objectives of Terrorism Coercive objectives of terrorism include disorienting a target population, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: September 11th, Global Terrorism and War on Terrorism

September 11th, Global Terrorism and War on

Major Key Concepts
  • Political terrorism The deliberate use or threat
    of violence against non-combatants, calculated to
    instill fear, alarm, and ultimately a feeling of
    helplessness in an audience beyond the immediate
  • The use of violence includes hostage-taking,
    hijacking, bombing, and other indiscriminate
    attacks, usually targeting civilians
  • Causes ideological, ethnic, and religious

  • Assymetric warfare Armed conflict between
    terrorist networks and conventional military

Major Key Concepts
  • Information warfare Attacks on an adversarys
    telecommunications and computer networks to
    degrade the technological systems vital to its
    defense and economic well-being. This is also
    known as cyber-terrorism.
  • Bush Doctrine It is a set of foreign policy
    guidelines including an emphasis on military
    pre-emption, military superiority, unilateral
    action against any perceived security threat
    (such as Iraq), and a commitment to "extending
    democracy, liberty, and security to all regions".
    It is a departure from the policies of deterrence
    and containment.

Terrorism as a Security Threat
  • Since the beginning of the modern state system
    about three and a half centuries ago
    (Westphalia-1648), nations have prepared
    themselves for wars against other countries.
  • During all that period, war has been considered
    as a large-scale organized violence between the
    regular armies of sovereign states.

Terrorism as a Security Threat
  • Although national leaders still keep their
    countries prepared for such clashes and
    conflicts, increasingly they are faced with the
    prospect of asymmetric warfare which refers to
    an armed conflict between terrorist networks and
    conventional military forces.
  • However, globalization enabled terrorism to grow
    from a regional into a global one
  • Technologies associated with globalization have
    enabled terrorist groups to conduct operations
    that are deadlier
  • Therefore, technologies associated with
    globalization have improved terrorist capabilities

  • Birth of transnational terrorism
  • The expansion of air travel (travel freely
    between countries), the wider availability of
    televised new coverage (awareness), and broad
    common political and ideological interests
  • These changes allowed terrorism to grow from
    local and regional phenomenon into an
    international threat

Various Objectives of Terrorism
  • Although terrorist activities may be similar with
    their nature, they may have different objectives
    and aims.
  • Agitational objectives of terrorism include
    promoting the dissident group, advertising its
    agenda, and discrediting its rivals.
  • e.g. Nineteenth century anarchists believed
    that one shocking act would draw more attention
    than a thousand leaflets

  • Various Objectives of Terrorism
  • Coercive objectives of terrorism include
    disorienting a target population, inflating the
    perceived power of the dissident group, wringing
    concessions from authorities, and provoking a
    heavy-handed overreaction from the police and
  • e.g. Attacks at markets, cafes and other
    quiet locations to paralyze daily life and
    disseminate fear among the public.

Various Objectives of Terrorism
  • 3) Organizational objectives of terrorism include
    acquiring resources, forging group cohesion, and
    maintaining an underground network of supporters.
  • e.g. Robbing banks, demanding ransom for
    hostages, and collecting protection money from

September 11th 2001 The Turn of a New Era?
  • The terrorist attacks against the United States
    on September 11th 2001 (shortly known as 9/11)
    clearly marked a new era in the security
    perceptions of the countries and led to a global
    war against terrorism.
  • After 9/11, the American foreign policy was
    re-defined and to fight against terrorism at the
    global scale, the concept of Bush Doctrine
    emerged which was mainly dominated by the
    neo-conservative perspective in the US
  • Especially Afghanistan and Iraq have been the two
    main battle grounds of the United States
    global war against terrorism.
  • So far, the death toll has been very high in
    these countries and they both seem to be
    unfinished stories.

  • Al Qaeda, founder Osama Bin Laden
  • Restoration of the former greatness of Islam
  • Defense of oppressed Muslims and defeat of the
    theological enemies of Islam
  • Absolute religious devotion
  • Global economic conspiracy theory that links to
    international poverty and suffering
  • Rejection of secular materialism

  • Current wave of terrorist violence uses religious
    justification to legitimize the killings on
  • Global jihad a reaction to the perceived
    oppression of Muslims worldwide and spiritual
    bankruptcy of the West.
  • Religion powerful element of terrorism but
    ultimate purpose is the seizing the control of

Discussion Questions
  • Can the war against global terrorism be won?
  • Can terrorism be completely eliminated? If yes,
    how? If no, why not?
  • Can terrorism ever be justified?
  • What are the political, socio-economic and
    cultural reasons feeding global terrorism?