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The Nile River Valley

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The Nile River Valley With an astounding length of 4,145 miles, the Nile River is the longest river in the world, and the only major river that flows south to north. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Nile River Valley


1
The Nile River Valley
  • With an astounding length of 4,145 miles, the
    Nile River is the longest river in the world, and
    the only major river that flows south to north.
  • The Nile River is often called the lifeblood or
    The Gift of Egypt.

2
Upper and Lower Egypt
  • Ancient Egypt includes two regions, upper
    (southern) and lower (Northern) Egypt

3
Blue and White Nile
  • At its source, The Nile is 2 separate rivers the
    Blue Nile flows out of the mountains and meets
    with the White Nile.

4
Cataracts
  • Along the Nile there are locations called
    cataracts. The cataracts prevented invasions from
    the South along the Nile River. The rushing and
    swirling water was too difficult to travel along.

5
Geography of Egypt
  • Harsh deserts surrounded the Nile river. The
    Libyan and Eastern deserts acted as a natural
    barrier against invasions.
  • The Nile River flooded each year to create a long
    narrow corridor about 12 miles wide of very
    fertile soil.
  • When the land was covered in silt ,it looked
    black. They called this the black land or Kemet.
  • The dry area looked red so they called it the red
    land.

6
Delta
  • Before the Nile reaches the Mediterranean Sea, it
    splits into many branches. These waterways form a
    fan-shaped area of fertile land called a delta.

7
Flood season
  • The Inundation was the time from June to
    September. This was the time of the flood. During
    this time, Egyptians were paid to work for the
    Pharaoh on building projects.

8
Flood season
  • The Emergence of the land from the water
    covering was from October to February. During
    this time, Egyptians planted and captured as much
    water as possible in irrigation ditches.
  • The last of the three seasons was the drought
    season. During the drought, the harvest took
    place.

9
Papyrus
  • Papyrus was one of the most versatile plants
    growing along the Nile. The plant was used to
    make paper, sandals, boats, ropes, and even
    paintbrushes.

10
Hieroglyphics
  • The Egyptians came up with a writing system
    called hieroglyphics. It was a combination of
    pictures and sound symbols.
  • Scribes wrote on papyrus.

11
People of the Nile
  • Egyptian people also ate fish from the river, but
    the Pharaoh never ate fish because it was
    considered unclean from the Nile waters.
  • Most Egyptians were farmers. They lived in
    mud-brick one story houses on small rented plots
    of land.

12
Advances in farming
  • Canals were dug from the Nile to the farms for
    irrigation. Egyptians also used a shadoof (bucket
    attached to a long pole) to get water from the
    river.

13
Uniting Egypt
  • At first Upper and Lower Egypt were not united.
  • Upper Egypt was symbolized by a white cone-shaped
    crown.
  • Lower Egypt was symbolized by a red crown.
  • Around 3100BC, Narmer (Menes) from Upper Egypt
    conquered Lower Egypt and married one of their
    princesses, uniting both kingdoms.

14
Dynasties
  • Menes is considered Egypts first Pharaoh.
  • He also created the first dynasty (line of rulers
    from the same family) in Egypt.
  • He also built a new capital city that was later
    called Memphis.
  • From 3100 BC to 332 BC a series of 32 dynasties
    ruled Egypt. These time periods are known as the
    Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, and New Kingdom.
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