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Urban Political Machines

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Urban Political Machines & their Decline Extent Reform Other Forces Impact HAVE URBAN POLITICAL MACHINES REALLY DISAPPEARED? Four elements of machines (in addition to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Urban Political Machines


1
Urban Political Machines their Decline
  • Extent
  • Reform
  • Other Forces
  • Impact

2
HAVE URBAN POLITICAL MACHINES REALLY DISAPPEARED?
  • Four elements of machines (in addition to
    patronage)
  • Four changes in the practice of machine politics

3
Four Elements of Machines (in addition to
patronage or material rewards)
  • Disciplined hierarchy led by single boss
  • Party controls nomination to public office
  • Party leadership does not hold public office
  • Loyalty maintained by a mixture of
    non-ideological and psychic rewards

4
Tammany Hall Politics revolves around boss
Richard Croker (1889)
5
Four Changes in Practices of Machine Politics
  • Racial divisions fracture hierarchy
  • Patronage less important
  • New immigrants less dependent on machines
  • New institutions take functions of central city
    machines

6
DECLINE OF MACHINE POLITICS
  • EXTENT
  • REFORM
  • OTHER FORCES
  • IMPACT

7
Reforming the Machines Out of Business
  • Social dimensions of Reformers
  • Programs of structural reforms

8
Reformers and Bosses Social Dimensions
  • View of social reformers as morning glories
  • Conflicts between reformers and bosses
  • Immigrants looked on politics from personal
    perspective
  • Upper-middle class reformers looked on politics
    as arena to realize broad moral principles
  • Differences in ethos public regarding vs private
    regarding
  • Social Reformers
  • Concern with abuses of capitalist system
  • Example (Hazen Pingree Detroit)

9
Goals/Programs of Structural Reformers
  • Goal efficiency (as contrasted with
    anti-capitalism of reformers
  • Example (Grover Cleveland Buffalo)
  • Core programs
  • Merit appointments
  • Privatization

10
Notable Innovations (electoral machinery) of the
Urban Structural Reformers
  • Direct primaries
  • At-large elections
  • Short ballot
  • Non-partisan elections

11
DECLINE OF MACHINE POLITICS
  • EXTENT
  • REFORM
  • OTHER FORCES
  • IMPACT

12
Other Forces and the Decline of Machines
  • Federal government
  • Demography

13
Federal Government and Decline of the Urban
Political Machines
  • Welfare politics empowers the federal government
  • Magnitude of resources involved beyond the
    capabilities of municipalities
  • thought of as a legal right
  • Infrastructure development favors a national
    focus
  • Equity between cities/regions
  • Again, magnitude of resources problem
  • Courts

14
Demographics and the Decline of Urban Political
Machines
  • Minority migration pressures machines to become
    more inclusive
  • Westward drift increases proportion of population
    in urban areas lacking machine tradition
  • Rise of suburbia
  • Lack machine tradition
  • Suburbanites focus on their careers rather than
    on patronage from machines

15
Decline of the Urban Machine
  • EXTENT
  • REFORM
  • OTHER FORCES
  • IMPACT

16
Impact of the Urban Political Machines Decline
Institutions
  • Kinds of cities that favor reform style of
    government
  • Strong mayor (Chicago)
  • Council manager (Dallas/San Diego)
  • Commission (Galveston, Texas)

17
Other Impacts of the Urban Political Machines
Decline
  • Class bias of political reform
  • Fragmentation and the decrease of accountability
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