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In a paragraph, explain the difference between Johnson

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In a paragraph, explain the difference between Johnson s presidential Reconstruction plan and the Radical Republican s congressional Reconstruction plan. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: In a paragraph, explain the difference between Johnson


1
Warm-Up
  • In a paragraph, explain the difference between
    Johnsons presidential Reconstruction plan and
    the Radical Republicans congressional
    Reconstruction plan.

2
Reconstruction Part 2
  • Ms. Cronin! ?

3
RECONSTRUCTION IN THE SOUTH
  • 20,000 troops stationed in the South
  • Tended to stay in the background but their
    presence was intensely resented by white
    southerners
  • Role was generally positive
  • Protected Unionists and blacks when they voted
  • Without army, ex-Confederates would have
    prevented both from voting

4
CARPETBAGGERS AND SCALAWAGS
  • Most blacks and Unionists voted for Republicans
  • Often called Carpetbaggers (white Northerners
    who had moved to the South) or Scalawags
    (former white Unionists)
  • Contrary to myth, most were honest and sincere
    men who truly wanted to help the ex-slave
  • Not the corrupt and vicious politicians that
    white racist legend has portrayed them to be

5
New Southern Politics
  • Carpetbaggers Northern Republicans that moved
    to the south to get elected
  • Scalawags Southern whites that became
    Republicans
  • Blacks gained some public offices

6
RECONSTRUCTION STATE GOVERNMENTS
  • State governments set up by Republicans all aimed
    at overthrowing white supremacy in the South
  • All gave blacks the right to vote
  • Many reapportioned legislative districts to give
    blacks better representation
  • Property qualifications for voting and holding
    office were abolished
  • Black Codes were abolished
  • Institutions for caring for the sick, disabled,
    insane, and destitute were set up
  • Most set up integrated public schools

7
GOOD BUT HATED
  • Some elected Republican officials in the South
    were black
  • Most were white Scalawags or carpetbaggers
  • Most southern state administrations were liberal
    and aimed at guaranteeing equality and education
    for all and helping the unfortunate
  • Earned undying animosity of former conservative
    white planter elite
  • Hated every aspect of Reconstruction
  • Hated coalition of blacks, Unionists and northern
    Republicans
  • Resented aid to the poor
  • Especially hated policy of equal rights for blacks

8
Corruption Under US Grant
  • Era of Good Stealings name for Grant
    Administration
  • Gold Scandal
  • Credit Mobilier
  • Whiskey Ring
  • Railroad Scheme
  • Grant too trusting in friends/supporters, taken
    advantage of
  • Corruption ruins his legacy

9
BIG OBSTACLE
  • Former white planter elite exploited racism of
    poor, white southerners to undermine
    Reconstruction and destroy Republicans
  • Powerful current of racism was the major and, in
    the end, insurmountable obstacle that southern
    Republicans faced in trying to win over poor
    white voters
  • Who might have otherwise sympathized with Radical
    Republican policies

10
DANGEROUS TURN
  • White Republicans were socially disliked
  • Republican businesses were boycotted
  • White Republicans could not rent houses, hotel
    rooms, or even boarding house rooms
  • Whites employed intimidation and violence to
    prevent blacks from voting
  • uppity blacks were beaten up and sometimes
    killed
  • Black leaders were threatened with assassination
    attempts and mob violence

11
KKK
  • Secret terrorist organizations were formed to
    terrorize blacks and control their votes
  • Such as the Ku Klux Klan
  • Public opinion was generally on the side of these
    organizations
  • White juries routinely found them not guilty
  • Even when the crime was murder

12
Ku Klux Klan
  • Organization of former Confederate soldiers
  • Terrorize blacks and white sympathizers
  • Teachers, Republicans, Lawyers (later Jews and
    Catholics)
  • Purpose Restore pre-Civil War conditions
  • Maintain White Supremacy
  • Restore south to Democrats

13
Lynching
400 die between 1867-1871 (that we know of).
Lynching will continue for the next 100 years!
14
RETREAT
  • Throughout the North, many people had come to
    believe by 1875 that the country as a whole would
    be better off if the government gave up trying to
    impose Reconstruction on an unwilling South
  • In general, the Republican Party and Northerners
    gradually retreated from their commitment to
    black equality
  • Abandoned all efforts to defend equal rights

15
ELECTION OF 1876
  • Democrat Samuel J. Tilden vs Republican
    Rutherford B. Hayes
  • Very close election
  • 184 electoral college votes for Tilden and 165
    for Hayes
  • But 20 electoral college votes (19 of which were
    from the South) were in dispute and claimed by
    both candidates
  • If Hayes could get firm control of them, he would
    win, 185 to 184

16
Compromise of 1877
  • Special Commission on Elections
  • 20 undecided electoral votes
  • LA, FL, SC so close they send two sets of votes
    Hayes wins one/Tilden the other
  • Hayes chosen to win the election
  • Conditions
  • Troops removed from south
  • South handles their own affairs (race relations)
  • Blacks are abandoned

17
END OF RECONSTRUCTION
  • Compromise of 1877 ended Reconstruction in the
    South once and for all
  • Remaining white Republicans and all blacks were
    now at the mercy of racist Democratic local and
    state governments
  • Also created so-called Solid South
  • Region overwhelmingly voted Democratic in every
    election until the late 1960s
  • Even after Democratic Party changed its attitude
    towards race

18
Jim Crow Laws
  • Created to replace Black Codes
  • Kept segregation legal
  • Will exist from 1866 to 1965 in most places in
    the southern U.S.

19
CONCLUSION
  • As a result of the Compromise of 1877, South was
    also given a free hand to deal with blacks and
    other local issues with little federal
    interference
  • Result of this would be lynching, Jim Crow
    laws, segregated public facilities and schools,
    poll taxes, and all the other racist laws that
    the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s/1960s
    finally eliminated
  • The failure of Reconstruction and the Compromise
    of 1877 established the characteristics that the
    South would retain for the next 100 years
  • And most of them were negative

20
Post Reconstruction Challenges
  • Jim Crow Laws Social Discrimination
  • Sharecropping Economic Limitation
  • Literacy TestsLoss of political power
  • White Supremacy in South upheld by terrorism
    (lynching)

21
How did this affect reconstruction?
  • Ends reconstruction
  • South allowed free reign over blacks
  • Jim Crow Laws (Black Codes) established to rule
    southern society
  • South had won the reconstruction battle
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