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Decline of the byzantine empire

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Title: Chapter 9: Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe Created Date: 4/6/2008 6:02:36 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Decline of the byzantine empire


1
Decline of the byzantine empire
2
Beyond Justinian
  • Successors must defend the Eastern Empire itself
  • Reverse Persian successes in the 7th Century.
  • Population forcibly converted to Christianity.
  • The Empire was centered in the Balkans,
    western/central portions of Turkey.
  • Byzantine Empire represented a mix of Hellenistic
    tradition, Christianity, as well as Roman
    engineering, military tactics, and codified law.
  • Strong enough to withstand the threat of the
    expanding Arab Muslim Empire.

3
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4
The Muslim Threat
  • While the Byzantines were able to withstand the
    Muslim threat, they did so taking on massive
    losses.
  • Arabs built a naval fleet that challenged
    Byzantine naval supremacy in the Eastern
    Mediterranean
  • Arabs launched continual attacks on
    Constantinople.
  • Wars with the Muslims added economic burdens to
    the Empire
  • Invasions, taxation create larger aristocratic
    estates because of burden on small farmers.

5
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6
Bulgaria
  • Example of a SLAVIC territory that pressed
    Byzantine territory in the Balkans.
  • Bulgarian king takes the title Tsar, Slavic for
    Caesar in the 10th century.
  • Byzantine pressure erodes the regional kingdom.
  • Basil II (Byzantine Emperor) used Byzantine
    wealth to bribe wealthy Bulgarian nobles and
    generals, defeating their army in 1014.

7
Decline of the Byzantine Empire
  • Turkish troops, the Seljuks, seized most of the
    Asiatic provinces of the Empire.
  • Loss in battle of Manzikert in 1071 never allowed
    Byzantine Army to recover.
  • Creation of new, independent Slavic kingdoms in
    the Balkans (like Serbia) showed the Empires
    diminished power.
  • Eastern leaders appeal to the west for assistance
    against the Turks, but they were ignored.

8
Decline of the Byzantine Empire
  • Signs of shifting power include the increased
    impact of Italian trading cities with the ports
    of Constantinople.
  • 1204 CE Crusade to take back Holy Land actually
    turned against Constantinople!
  • Weakened the Byzantine Empire more!
  • Pope John Paul II apologized for this in 2004.
  • 1453- Turkish Ottoman Sultan brings his powerful
    army, with artillery purchased from the west to
    Constantinople. The city falls in under two
    months.
  • The fall of the Byzantine Empire was one of the
    great events in World History

9
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10
Spread of Civilization to Eastern Europe
  • Orthodox missionaries were sent from the
    Byzantine Empire northward to extend the scope of
    Christianity through the Balkans to the Central
    Asian lands.
  • East-Central Borderlands (the areas north of the
    Balkans, in between Western Europe and Asia) were
    Regional Kingdoms, loosely governed, under a
    powerful land-owning aristocracy.
  • Kingdoms of Poland, Bohemia (Czechoslovakia), and
    Lithuania.
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