Forensic%20Anthropology%20and%20Odontology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Forensic%20Anthropology%20and%20Odontology

Description:

Forensic Anthropology and Odontology Forensic Anthropology study of human skeletal remains to determine sex, age, race, and time of death in an effort to identify an ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:105
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 21
Provided by: Mille180
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Forensic%20Anthropology%20and%20Odontology


1
Forensic Anthropology and Odontology
2
  • Forensic Anthropology
  • study of human skeletal remains to determine sex,
    age, race, and time of death in an effort to
    identify an individual
  • includes newer topics of facial reconstruction
    and age progression
  • anthros is Greek for humankind or man, logos
    means the study of

3
  • Determination of Sex
  • Pelvis best
  • females have wider subpubic angle
  • females have a wider sciatic notch
  • females have a broad pelvic inlet

4
  • Determination of Sex
  • Pelvis best
  • females have wider subpubic angle
  • females have a wider sciatic notch
  • females have a broad pelvic inlet

5
  • Determination of Sex
  • Cranium second best
  • Crests and ridges more pronounced in males (A, B,
    C)
  • Chin significantly more square in males (E)
  • Jaw (I, E), mastoid process wide and robust in
    males
  • Forehead slopes more in males (F)

6
Determination of Sex Other bones are not usually
as good an indicator regarding sex
7
  • Determination of Race
  • The cranium is the only reliable bone and, even
    then, can only tell general category as below
  • Mongoloid (all of Asian decent and Native
    American decent)
  • wider cheekbones, concave incisors,
  • width between eyes greatest
  • Negro (everyone of African decent and West Indian
    decent)
  • more prominent ridges, wider nasal opening
  • Caucasian (all white individuals)
  • narrow everything

8
  • Determination of Age from Bones
  • Ages 0-5 teeth are best forensic odontology
  • Ages 6-25 epiphyseal fusion fusion of bone
    ends to bone shaft
  • epiphyseal fusion varies with sex and is
    typically complete by age 25
  • Ages 25-40 very hard
  • Ages 40 periodontal disease, arthritis,
    breakdown of pelvis, occupational stress, unique
    clues

9
Determination of Age from Bones
Occupational stress wears bones at joints
Surgeries or healed wounds aid in identification
10
Determination of Stature from Bones Long bone
length (femur, tibia, humerus) is proportional to
height There are tables that forensic
anthropologists use. For example Femur length
Predicted Height 41 cm 167 cm (56) 50
cm 186 cm (61) Males (1.88 x femur length
in inches) 32.01 Females (1.945 x femur length
in inches) 28.70
11
  • Dating Human Skeletal Remains
  • Under the right conditions, bodies can be reduced
    to a skeleton in as little as three weeks
  • Laboratory Tests
  • Immunology tests can indicate if body is a few
    months old or less
  • Blood pigments last less than 10 years
  • Identification of amino acids possible if less
    than 100 yrs old (fluorescence)
  • Percentage of nitrogen in bones (new is about
    4.5) bones lose about 0.006 a year
  • Carbon dating for bones centuries old

12
Odontology
  • Deciduous Teeth
  • Maxilla upper jaw, 10 teeth
  • 4 incisors, 2 canine, 4 molars
  • Mandible lower jaw, 10 teeth
  • 4 incisors, 2 canine, 4 molars
  • Permanent Teeth
  • Maxilla upper jaw, 16 teeth
  • 4 incisors, 2 canine,
  • 4 premolars, 6 molars
  • Mandible lower jaw, 16 teeth
  • 4 incisors, 2 canine,
  • 4 premolars, 6 molars
  • Third molars wisdom teeth

13
Facial Reconstruction
1. Obtain skull
  • Determine demographic information
  • (female, Caucasian, early 40s)
  • Note unique features
  • (had lost all back teeth on upper and lower
    jaw)
  • Anything known about this individual?
  • (came to U.S. by boat in 1710 from Europe, died
    and buried in NY around 1733)

14
Facial Reconstruction
  • Add tissue depth markers
  • Based on largely on sex and race

3. Begin to add common fat deposits and
underlying muscles
15
Facial Reconstruction
4. Add muscle to average depth for race
5. Add skin, nose, ears
6. Add features related to age and race
(wrinkles, eye and hair color)
16
Facial Reconstruction
7. Add clothing etc appropriate for the time
period, religious affiliations, etc
17
Forensic Odontology
  • identification of bite marks on victims
  • comparison of bite marks with teeth of a suspect
  • identification of unknown bodies through dental
    records
  • age estimations of skeletal remains
  • victim identification through DNA analysis

18
Normal Adult Human Teeth
19
Forensic Odontology Bite Marks Physical
Characteristics
  • distance from cuspid to cuspid
  • tooth alignment
  • teeth width, thickness, spacing
  • missing teeth
  • wear patterns including chips and grinding
  • dental history including fillings, crowns, etc.

20
Forensic Odontology Age Determination
  • Neonatal Line allows forensic odontologists to
    determine if a child was alive at birth
  • Ratio of L-aspartic acid to D-aspartic acid (/-
    1.5 years)
  • (L-aspartic acid ? D-aspartic acid with time)
  • Gustafsons Method six signs of wear including
    dentin density and transparency
About PowerShow.com