Causes of Haze Assessment - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Causes of Haze Assessment PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 771c88-NGZlZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Causes of Haze Assessment

Description:

Title: Descriptive Analysis Map Progress Author: DDuBois Last modified by: DDuBois Created Date: 10/27/2003 9:34:28 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:48
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 61
Provided by: DDu57
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Causes of Haze Assessment


1
Causes of Haze Assessment
Presented at the RPO National Technical
Workgroup Meeting November 5, 2003
  • Dave DuBois
  • Desert Research Institute

2
Acknowledgements
  • Funding from WRAP and CENRAP
  • WRAP Air Monitoring Reporting Forum Chair
  • Marc Pitchford
  • DRI Faculty
  • Mark Green, Principal Investigator
  • Jin Xu
  • Dan Freeman
  • Vic Etyemezian
  • DRI students and hourly employees
  • Aleksandra Nikolic
  • Karl Graham
  • Anthony Deleon
  • Eric Peters

1
3
COHA Status Report
  • Review goals and objectives
  • COHA approach
  • Virtual report
  • Aerosol descriptions
  • Meteorological descriptions
  • Emissions descriptions
  • Trajectory analysis
  • Episode analysis

2
4
Goals Objectives
  • Assess causes of haze for all study sites
  • Systematic study of 128 Class I areas in WRAP and
    CENRAP, 8 tribal sites and 10 CENRAP protocol
    sites
  • Encourage broad-based stakeholder participation
    throughout the assessment process
  • Enhance the utility and accessibility of the
    results for
  • SIP TIP development,
  • Regional air quality model evaluation
    interpretation,
  • Identification of monitoring gaps,
  • Improved methodology for setting natural haze
    levels,
  • Tracking effectiveness of emission control
    programs

3
5
COHA Study Data
  • Began analysis of 1997 to 2002 IMPROVE and
    protocol database
  • Primarily using IMPROVE and protocol sites with
    full speciation data in the study region (118
    sites by December 2002)
  • Using nationwide network of 158 sites (end of
    2002) to establish continental and regional
    setting

4
6
COHA Approach
Determine causes of haze at WRAP and CENRAP Class
I areas, tribal and selected CENRAP IMPROVE
protocol sites
5
7
COHA Approach
  • Systematic studymany sites, many questions to
    answer
  • Processing reports in batch mode to facilitate
    timely completion
  • Give each site individual attention once batch
    processing is completed

6
8
COHA Approach
  • Virtual reportno paper report
  • A virtual report designed as a tool to
  • guide us in the causes of haze
  • communicate results
  • help users to interpret causes of haze
  • Virtual report gives us the ability to mix text,
    graphics, animations and links to external web
    sites in addition to timely updates

7
9
The Causes of Haze web site is online now in
a DRAFT, password protected form http//coha.dri.
edu Username dri-coha Password hazeyweb
Much of the web site is a shell ready to receive
data and causes of haze information that we
generate
8
10
This interface is under construction and may
change
View reports by state, area, tribal area
or protocol site
View animations of IMPROVE measurements
9
11
Aerosol Descriptive Analysis
Provides answers to the questions
  • For the years 1997-2001, how many measurements
    are available for the site in each month of each
    year, and what are the contributions of the major
    aerosol components to light extinction in each
    month of each year?
  • What is the overall average light extinction at
    the site, and what are the contributions of the
    major aerosol components to the light extinction?
  • What are the light extinction contributions by
    the major aerosol components for best, worst and
    average days and how do they compare?
  • What percentage of the sampling days are the
    worst days in each month how variable are the
    chemical components?

10
12
Aerosol Descriptive Analysis
Aerosol descriptions available on web page now
BIBE1, Big Bend National Park, TX BOWA1,
Boundary Waters Canoe Area, MN DENA1, Denali
National Park, AK GRCA2 , Hance Camp at Grand
Canyon NP, AZ HAVO1, Hawaii Volcanoes National
Park, HI JARB1, Jarbidge Wilderness, NV MORA1,
Mount Rainier National Park, WA SAGO1, San
Gorgonio Wilderness, CA SAGU1, Saguaro National
Monument, AZ UPBU1, Upper Buffalo Wilderness, AR
11
13
Aerosol Descriptive Analysis
Pages designed for users to copy and paste text
and figures into their own reports Example San
Gorgonio Wilderness Area, California Both charts
and text to describe the 20 best, worst and
middle 60 Printer friendly and black white
versions of pages
12
14
Meteorological Emissions Descriptive Analysis
  • Archived monitoring network locations, climate,
    emissions, wildfires, census, political,
    physical, and image databases
  • Information from these databases are helping us
    build conceptual models and answer descriptive
    analysis questions by visualizing data (e.g. map
    emissions densities)
  • Assist us in the general and detailed description
    of the meteorological setting of each site
  • Over 120 GB of spatial data archived at DRI

13
15
Descriptive Analysis Map Progress
  • Standard maps to support descriptive analysis
    text
  • Terrain (labels on rivers, lakes, major features,
    peaks)
  • Nearby met/air quality networks
  • Urban boundaries, roads, landmarks
  • Landuse map
  • Landsat image (qualitative landuse, with some
    features labeled)
  • Emissions map (fires, WRAP point inventory, urban
    areas, roads)
  • Specialized maps (as needed basis)
  • 3D terrain map
  • Meteorological flow map to illustrate transport

14
16
Standard Analysis Map Progress
50
50
50
80
40
80
75
40
50
25
80
50
25
75
50
33
80
30
90
60
Maps for web site Approx. percent completed
60
80
Hawaii 0, Alaska 0
15
17
Cucamonga Wilderness Area
Example 20 km terrain map
16
18
Cucamonga Wilderness Area
Example 2 km terrain map
17
19
Meteorological Description Update
  • Describe meteorological influences by defining
    regions
  • Hawaii and So. Calif. Coastal are posted on web
  • Detailed meteorological descriptions
  • San Gorgonio and Jarbidge are posted on web
  • Terrain description
  • Access database tool developed to assist
    descriptive text
  • Identify nearby meteorological measurements for
    use in interpreting aerosol data

18
20
Cucamonga Wilderness Area
Example 20 km met/air quality network map
19
21
Trajectory Analysis Status
  • Three years (2000-2001), three heights (10, 500,
    1500m), every three hours
  • EDAS for continental sites and FNL for Hawaii and
    Alaska
  • HYSPLIT v4.6 model calculations done for all
    sites
  • Trajectory output being processed and stored in
    database
  • Trajectory tool being developed to produce ASCII
    summary files and convert trajectories into
    shapefiles
  • Generate summary maps

20
22
Emissions Description Status
  • Developing standard template for web site
  • Creating maps of emissions surrounding each site
    at two scales 2 km and 20 km
  • Include table of surrounding point sources ranked
    by distance and emission rate

21
23
Cucamonga Wilderness Area
20 km emissions map
22
24
Episode Analysis
  • Use combination of backtrajectory, synoptic,
    mesoscale meteorological analysis, aerosol and
    emissions data to conceptually understand single
    site and regional or sub-regional episodes of
    high aerosol component concentrations
  • Systematic survey of episodes from the 1997 to
    2002 IMPROVE database

23
25
Episode Analysis
  • Created animated maps of IMPROVE and protocol
    measurements for entire network
  • Choose episodes base on sites classified with 20
    worst light extinction
  • Noting duration, frequency, regional extent,
    season and components that contributed to light
    extinction
  • Assemble case studies and classify into episode
    types
  • Create database of these episodes
  • Combine results of episode analysis with cluster
    analysis to develop conceptual models

24
26
Hazagon Analysis
  • The hazagon provides a way to visualize speciated
    extinction for those sites in the 20 worst
    category

25
27
Wrap up
  • Phase I analyses completed by summer 2004
  • Phase II analyses completed by 2005
  • Possibilities of adding other RPO's
  • Continue to maintain and update the website
    information plus the need to repeat the
    assessment periodically (e.g. 5 year cycle).

26
28
Example Episodes
  • April 16, 2001 Asian Dust over Western US
  • August 2001 wildfires
  • October 16, 2001 Arizona dust
  • September 3, 1997 Eastern sulfate transport to
    Colorado Plateau

27
29
4/16/01 Asian Dust Episode
28
30
GOES View of the Dust Streak Across North
America, April 17
GOES10 view of dust streak on the morning of
April 17
GOES8 view of dust streak on the evening of April
17
29
31
Transport of the Asian dust to the United States
The common weather conditions are usually
associated with the upper low pressure trough /
cut-ff low and surface low pressure system (low
formed by a strong cyclonic vortex) over
northeast China and north Korea Kim et al.,
2002. Under this weather conditions, Asian dust
can move fast along the zonal wind distribution
due to the jet streak Kim et al., 2002.
30
32
Large Area Regional Haze on April 16, 2001
  • 45 of the 68 WRAP IMPROVE monitoring sites were
    in 20 worst case days of the year 2001. For the
    sites that were 20 worst case days, the average
    contribution of fine soil to PM2.5 is 60 (with
    a standard deviation of 13), and dusts (fine
    soil and coarse mass) contributed in average
    46 (S.D. 13) to the aerosol light extinction.
  • The average contribution of fine soil to PM2.5 is
    54, and to aerosol light extinction is 41 for
    all WRAP sites on April 16, 2001.

31
33
Asian Dust Signature
  • Asian dust may cause haze in a large area and
    last several days depending on the regional and
    local weather conditions in the United States.
  • Usually, dust elements dominate the aerosol light
    extinction in the whole western United States
    during the Asian dust episode. The dust cloud may
    also move to the Eastern U.S. and influence some
    of the eastern sites, although the influence is
    usually much smaller in both spatial scale and
    loading.
  • Most of the Asian dust episodes happen in the
    spring during the Month of March to May.

32
34
Asian Source Attribution Evidence
  • The desert regions in Mongolia and China,
    especially Gobi desert in Northwest China, are
    important sources of mineral aerosols. Given
    suitable weather conditions, dust can be lifted
    from the dry surface of the Asian Gobi desert
    region and transported to the United States in
    about 7-10 days. Extremely high aerosol loadings
    dominated by dust components are observed in
    Northern China and Korea during the episode.

33
35
Origin of the Asian Dust
Strong low pressure system sitting in northeast
Mongolia caused surface wind speeds to be as high
as 30 m/s
34
36
The August 2001 Western US Wildfire Episode
Most of August experienced heavy OC in the west.
44 sites in the WRAP region experienced the worst
20 day on August 17.
3 sites had this day as worst Bext CABI1,
Cabinet Mountains, MT NOCA1, North Cascades,
WA PASA1, Pasayten, WA
35
37
The August 2001 Western US Wildfire Episode
August 11-23
Fires started early in August and lasted all
month. 2001 was not a particularly bad fire year
in terms of number of acres burned
36
38
Databases available
  • IMPROVE data
  • Text, photos and maps on fires from NIFC, USFS,
    newspapers
  • Text on meteorology from NWS, NCDC
  • Weather maps from CDC, NCEP, WXP
  • MODIS satellite images from UWisc, USFS
  • Coarse fire locations fron MODIS, AVHRR

37
39
Large Fire Locations
Typical of late season fires, most of the fires
are in the northwest and northern Great Basin
38
40
August 15 Terra MODIS at 1838 UTC shows
transport of regional smoke plumes
39
41
August 17 Terra MODIS at 1838 UTCCan see
thick smoke in NW and coastal areas
The Moose Incident was one of the largest fires
of the 2001 season. This lightning caused fire
occurred August16th on the Flathead National
Forest. The Moose fire ultimately burned
approximately 71,000 acres before it was
controlled.
40
42
Conditions
According to NIFC National Fire News the national
level of preparedness increased to the highest
point on the 16th, as more than one half million
acres are burning in 42 large fires across the
United States. Nearly 21,000 firefighters are
working on the fire lines. Record high
temperatures in Oregon, Washington, and Idaho may
increase large fire activity. Predicted strong
winds will challenge firefighters on the 17th.
Media reports on the 16th indicate federal troops
will join the 21,000 firefighters. Fire activity
as of mid-August was near to or slightly above
the 10-year average.
41
43
Drought
http//lwf.ncdc.noaa.gov/img/climate/research/2001
/wildfire/08-07Statewideprank_pg.gif
42
44
Morning surface weather 17 August (1200 UTC)
Notice radar echos (see end of presentation)
43
45
5 day backtrajectories from morning of 17 Aug
Possible Canadian influence on Montana sites
NM sites point toward regional fires in Northwest
and upper Great Basin
44
46
Arizona Local (Regional) Dust Episode
45
47
Arizona Regional Dust Episode
46
48
Surface Weather Map Before the Sampling Day
47
49
Surface Weather Map Midnight October 16, 2001
48
50
Annual Percentile of Bext, OC, FS and CM on
10/16/2001
49
51
Transport of the Dust
50
52
Percentile of Bext, OC, FS and CM on 10/16/2001
51
53
Case study for September 3, 1997-Eastern US
sulfate transport to Colorado Plateau
12 spatially coherent sites in TX, NM, AZ, CO 20
worst haze,with sulfate dominant
52
54
Highest S for all 1997 at Arizona, New Mexico
sites and Mesa Verde, 94-99 percentile other sites
53
55
2 days prior to event, flow was light from the
east to southeast upwind of sites. Haze reported
at many eastern US NWS stations
54
56
Weak cold front passes- stronger flow accelerates
westward movement of hazy airmass? Flow in
response to high pressure system along Canadian
border
55
57
Bandalier, Big Bend 315 hour backtrajectories
from noon local time Sep 3
56
58
Tonto, Grand Canyon 315 hour backtrajectories
from noon local time Sep 3
57
59
Mt. Zirkel, Great Sand Dunes, 315 hour
backtrajectories from noon local time Sep 3
58
60
Conceptual model of event
  • Highest S day for 1998 for Arizona and New Mexico
    sites long-range transport from eastern US
  • Specific source areas in eastern US, unknown,
    could be large hazy blob and many source areas
    included from southeast to possibly Ohio River
    Valley
  • Initial inspection of aerosol maps indicates rare
    to get this far west- but not unusual to reach
    Big Bend (from BRAVO study analyses)
  • Movement of large early autumn high pressure west
    to east along Canadian border associated with
    this pattern and other cases of eastern US
    transport to Big Bend
  • Additional analysis could look at airport
    visibility data, other aerosol data, additional
    cases (if found)

59
About PowerShow.com