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By Sally Anderson

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It matters By Sally Anderson What is matter? Matter is anything that takes up space and can be experienced by one or more senses (seeing, hearing, feeling, smelling ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: By Sally Anderson


1
It matters
  • By Sally Anderson

2
What is matter?
  • Matter is anything that takes up space and can be
    experienced by one or more senses (seeing,
    hearing, feeling, smelling, tasting)

3
What is a state?
  • The condition or form that matter has
  • Also referred to as phase

4
Solid
  • A state of matter that has a definite shape and
    volume.
  • The particles (atoms or molecules) are packed
    closely together.
  • The forces between particles are strong enough so
    that the particles cannot move freely but can
    only vibrate.
  • Solids can only change their shape by force, as
    when broken or cut.

5
Liquid
  • A state of matter that has no definite shape, but
    has a definite volume takes the shape of the
    container.
  • It can drip.
  • When a solid is heated above its melting point,
    it becomes liquid.
  • The molecules have enough energy to move around
    and the molecules are farther apart than a solid.

6
Gas
  • A state of matter with no definite shape or
    volume
  • Generally it cant be seen
  • It takes the shape of its surroundings
  • Also called a vapor
  • Molecules are quick and far apart

7
Why properties are important to scientists
  • We study the properties of matter to discover
  • What is it made of?
  • How does it form?
  • Where does it come from?

8
Property or characteristic
  • Characteristics or qualities the way something
    is or behaves
  • Example A property of hydrogen, (H), is that it
    is extremely light in weight.
  • Other characteristics
  • Its color
  • Its shape
  • Its size
  • Its mass
  • Its density
  • Its weight
  • Its molecular structure
  • How it combines with other substances

9
Atoms
  • The smallest pieces of matter (cant see them
    with eyes)
  • The atom is the smallest thing in our body
  • Different kinds of atoms are called elements
  • Center is called the nucleus
  • Made of 3 particles
  • Nucleus contains protons ( charge) and neutrons
    (no charge)
  • Electrons travel fast around the nucleus

10
Element
  • Different kinds of atoms are called elements
  • A substance that cannot be easily broken into
    smaller parts
  • Oxygen is an element that we breathe. Pairs of
    oxygen atoms join together to form an oxygen
    molecule.

11
Periodic table of elements
  • A table, or grid, showing the periodic system in
    which all known elements are ordered by their
    weights
  • http//www.chemicalelements.com/
  • http//www.dayah.com/periodic/
  • http//periodic.lanl.gov/default.htm

12
Molecule
  • Forms when two or more atoms combine
  • Atoms can be the same element (like oxygen) O2
  • Most molecules have atoms of more than one
    element CO2 H20
  • Sometimes molecules combine to form a new
    molecule (burn coal carbon atoms in coal
    combine with oxygen in air to make carbon
    dioxide)

13
Physical changes
  • Melting
  • Add heat energy to solid, it melts and becomes
    liquid
  • Evaporation
  • Add heat energy to liquid, it evaporates and
    becomes a gas
  • Freezing
  • Take away heat energy from liquid, it freezes and
    becomes solid
  • Condensation
  • Take away heat energy from gas, it condenses and
    becomes liquid
  • In a physical change into another substance
    water is still water, even if frozen

14
Melting
  • Turn from a solid to a liquid by adding heat
    energy
  • Example melting solid gold to turn into molten
    gold. Liquid gold can be poured into a mold.
    Remove heat energy (freezing) and it cools
    returns to a solid.
  • Example NASA engineers have to find a way to
    protect the shuttles aluminum from melting
    (heat-resistant tiles)

15
Freezing
  • Process of liquid changing to a solid
  • Releases heat (take away heat energy)
  • Example NASA engineers use fuel that is colder
    than ice and if ice forms, it would break off and
    damage the space shuttle (they installed heater)

16
Evaporate or evaporation
  • The process of changing a liquid into a gas or
    vapor by adding heat energy
  • Example place a pot on the stove and some of the
    liquid will eventually turn into a gas
  • Example A puddle after a rain storm evaporates
    into the air by turning into a gas

17
Condense or Condensation
  • To take away heat energy to turn a gas into a
    liquid
  • Occurs when water vapor cools (lose heat energy)
  • Example water vapor (a gas) can form outside a
    cold glass of juice on the table)
  • Example Water vapor forms liquid dripping on
    outside of glass or a car window
  • Example On space shuttle, NASA uses liquid fuels
    (oxygen and hydrogen) in liquid state by removing
    heat and they store them in tanks

18
Mass
  • How much matter is in something
  • Can measure the mass, length and temperature of
    matter

19
volume
  • The amount of space inside an object
  • In a 3 dimentional cube, multiply the length x
    width x height
  • LxWxH

20
Density
  • How much matter something has
  • Must compare the densities of solids that have
    equal volume
  • If they have equal volume, the heaviest (or
    greatest mass) will be denser

21
Mixing
  • Mixing is another type of physical change
  • Example (water and oil mix and then separate)
    They are still water and oil

22
Dissolving
  • Another type of physical change
  • When you dissolve something solid into something
    liquid, you make a solution
  • Example sugar and coffee
  • The sugar is still sugar, even when mixed, but it
    is harder to separate the sugar from the coffee
    than to separate the oil from the water

23
Energy
  • Power
  • Examples heat energy, light energy, wind energy,
    solar energy, nuclear energy,

24
Potential energy
  • Possible or about to happen
  • Example The stacked cord of wood has lots of
    potential energy because we can burn it to stay
    warm.

25
Kinetic
  • Movement or motion
  • Example The horse race was filled with kinetic
    energy as the horses moved around the track

26
Viscosity
  • The amount of friction within a liquid
  • Example Cold honey is very viscous because it
    is hard to pour.
  • If a fluid drips slowly, it is viscous.

27
Review solids
State Definition Properties/ characteristics Mixture change Temperature and force changes
Solid Matter that can be touched and keeps its own shape Made of atoms that are really close together Keep their own shape If you add heat, they melt Made of atoms Have color you can see them If you apply force, it will break Made of matter Chemical reaction when they form together- cant be separated Chemical change needed to separate it Increase temperature will change solid to liquid (or gas) Increased pressure and force will change solids
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