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Nervous System

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Title: Nervous System


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Nervous System
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Lesson 7 Vocab
  • neurons nerve cells, which make up your nervous
    system
  • cerebrum the largest part of the brain where
    most of your thinking takes place
  • cerebellum the part of the brain that makes
    your muscles work together controls most
    movements that you do without thinking
  • hemispheres two halves of a sphere, or
    ball-shaped object, such as the brain

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  • brain the major organ in the nervous system
  • spinal cord an organ that carries messages to
    and from the brain
  • nerve is a bundle of cells that conducts
    messages from one part of the body to another
  • reflex an automatic response to stimuli

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Nervous System
  • 1. The nervous system controls all the systems in
    your body
  • 2. What do your nerve cells and nerves do?
  • a. Cells of your nervous system are called nerve
    cells, or neurons
  • i. Neurons have long branches that come out both
    ends
  • ii. They are long and thin
  • iii. Bundles of neurons
    make up nerves

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  • b. nerves receive and send messages
  • c. some carry messages to the brain to let it
    know what is happening in and around your body
    sensory nerves
  • d. others carry messages from the brain to
    muscles, telling muscles what to do motor nerves

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How Does your Brain Work
  • a. The brain is the control center of the body
  • b. Always receiving messages and sorts them out
    looking for meaning, then tells the body what to
    do

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  • c. 3 main parts
  • i. Cerebrum largest part, where most thinking
    takes place, solves problems, forms emotions
    (feelings), makes decisions, and controls how you
    learn, receives and answers messages from senses
  • 1. divided into 2 halves called hemispheres, each
    side responsible for different tasks
  • 2. 2 halves connected by the corpus callosum
  • 3. right side deals with imagination and the arts
  • 4. left side deals with words and facts, math
  • 5. both are always working together

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A concussion is a brain injury which occurs when
the head takes a sudden blow, banging the brain
against the side of the skull. Concussions range
from mild (no loss of consciousness) to severe
(loss of consciousness). Patients typically
suffer headaches, nausea and dizziness in the
short run and some develop enduring headaches,
dizziness and confusion for months. Athletes at
Central Dauphin East have to take an Impact test
to give a baseline for how their brains function
prior to a concussion. If they hit their head
playing sports and cant pass the same test, they
have to get treatment for concussion.
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  • ii. Cerebellum the part of the brain that makes
    muscles work together, helps move and keep
    balance, cerebellum directs most movement without
    you thinking about it
  • iii. Brain stem lowest part of the brain,
    messages moving between brain and the rest of the
    body pass through the brain stem
  • 1. medulla oblongata takes care of critical life
    functions breathing, heartbeat, swallowing,
    blood vessels, controls inner organs

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  • 4. What is the job of your spinal cord?
  • a. Starts at the base of the brain, main path for
    messages entering and leaving the brain
  • b. Surround and protects spinal cord connecting
    nerves to brain
  • c. Sudden actions that are done without thinking
    are reflexes

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Peripheral Nervous System
  • Nerves connect all parts of the body to the
    Central Nervous System (the brain and spinal
    cord)
  • Nerves serve as a means of communication between
    the Central Nervous System and the body

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Common Problems of the Nervous System
  • Meningitis an infection of the protective
    coverings of the brain and spinal cord caused by
    bacteria or a virus bacteria is treated by
    antibiotics and there is a vaccine. The viral
    form is most common and milder the West Nile
    Virus is one! No vaccine, just avoid mosquito
    bites if you can!
  • Rabies viral infection of the brain passed by
    the bite of an infected animal avoid animals
    acting strangely and get immediate medical
    attention if bitten

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  • Concussion an injury to the brain caused by a
    blow to the head may cause loss of memory or
    consciousness can be prevented by wearing
    protective headgear
  • Stroke the death of brain tissue due to a lack
    of blood to the brain requires immediate
    medical attention and hospitalization
  • Paralysis partial or total loss of the ability
    to use muscles usually caused by damage to the
    brain or spinal cord may be permanent

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  • Epilepsy a disorder of the nerves and brain
    that is characterized by uncontrollable muscle
    activity (seizures) treated with medication
  • Cerebral Palsy poor muscle control caused by
    damage to the brain, often at birth no cure or
    prevention but may be helped by physical therapy

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Review lesson 7
  • Review Lesson 7
  • 1. What does your nervous system do?
  • 2. How are sensory and motor nerves different?
  • 3. What are the jobs of the cerebrum?
  • 4. How are the hemispheres of your brain able to
    exchange nerve messages?
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