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KINGDOM ANIMALIA General Characteristics of Animals

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KINGDOM ANIMALIA General Characteristics of Animals KINGDOM ANIMALIA: 10 PHYLA Porifera Cnidaria Rotifera Platyhelminthes Nematoda Annelida Mollusca Arthropoda ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: KINGDOM ANIMALIA General Characteristics of Animals


1
KINGDOM ANIMALIAGeneral Characteristics of
Animals
2
Kingdom Animalia
  • All animals are multicellular, eukaryotic
    heterotrophs
  • Adult animals develop from embryos small masses
    of unspecialized cells
  • Simple animals can regenerate or grow back
    missing parts
  • Most animals ingest their food and then digest it
    in some kind of internal cavity.

3
Animal Diversity
  • Somewhere around 9 or 10 million species of
    animals inhabit the earth.
  • About 800,000 species have been identified.

4
Animal Phyla- Biologists recognize about 36
separate phyla within the Kingdom Animalia.
(Well study the 10 major ones!)
5
Animal Movement
  • Most animals are capable of complex and
    relatively rapid movement compared to plants and
    other organisms.
  • Organisms that live rooted to one spot are
    sessile and those that move around are motile.
    Even the most sessile animals can move at least
    part of their bodies. This movement is dependent
    on how animals obtain food.

6
Animal Reproduction
  • Most animals reproduce sexually, by means of
    differentiated haploid cells
  • (eggs and sperm)
  • Most animals are diploid, meaning that the cells
    of adults contain two copies of the genetic
    material.

7
Animal Sizes
  • Animals range in size from no more than a few
    cells to organisms weighing many tons!

8
Animal Habitats
  • Most animals inhabit the seas, with fewer in
    fresh water and even fewer on land.

9
Animal Cell Diagram
10
Animal Bodies
  • The bodies of most animals
  • (all except sponges) are made up of cells
    organized into tissues.
  • Each tissue is specialized to perform specific
    functions.
  • In most animals, tissues are organized into even
    more specialized organs.
  • Organs form organ systems. This is how an
    organism develops. These cells have to
    differentiate and become specialized in various
    ways.

11
Animal Systems
  • Skeletal- Support, protection- Bones, shells,
    cartilage
  • Muscular- Movement Muscle tissue (smooth,
    striated, cardiac)
  • Digestion- Digestion of food and absorption of
    nutrients-Mouth, stomach, intestine
  • Circulatory- Distribution of nutrients and
    oxygen removal of wastes-Heart, blood vessels,
    blood
  • Respiratory- Absorption of oxygen removal of
    CO2-Lungs, gills
  • Excretory- Removal of wastes-Kidneys
  • Nervous- Perception, control of movement, control
    and coordination of organ system
    activities-Brain, spinal cord, nerves
  • Endocrine- Control and coordination of organ
    system activities-Glands
  • Immune- Defense against disease-causing
    organisms-Blood cells, glands, skin
  • Reproductive- Production of new
    organisms-Ovaries, testes

12
Animal Symmetry
  • The most primitive animals are asymmetrical.
  • Cnidarians and echinoderms are radially
    symmetrical.
  • Most animals are bilaterally symmetrical.

13
Radial Symmetry
  • Forms that can be divided into similar halves by
    more than two planes passing through it.
  • Animals with radial symmetry are usually sessile,
    free-floating, or weakly swimming.

14
Radially Symmetrical
  • Like a wheel, animals with this spend most of
    their time floating like a buoy or attached to
    rocks.
  • Differences between the dorsal and ventral
    surfaces allow jellyfish to float upright sea
    anemones grip rocks with their ventral surfaces
    and collect food with their specialized dorsal
    surfaces.
  • Advantages Architects and engineers use
    radially symmetrical designs for structures such
    as fire hydrants and lighthouses so that the
    structures will be accessible or visible from any
    horizontal direction

15
Bilateral Symmetry
  • Animals with bilateral symmetery are most
    well-suited for directional movement.
  • Anterior (front end), and posterior (rear) end
  • The left and right sides of most animals are
    nearly mirror images.
  • Advantages
  • A. This body plan works well for animals, if a
    body part is damaged, the animal can rely on an
    identical part on its other side.
  • B. This symmetry provides balance that aids
    movement.
  • C. Anterior and dorsal defenses such as bones,
    shells, and horns protect delicate internal
    organs.

16
Radial vs. Bilateral Symmetry
17
Cephalization
  • Bilateral Symmetry usually has led to
    cephalization
  • the process by which sensory organs and
    appendages became localized in the head
    (anterior) end of animals.

18
Evolutionary Trends
  • If we analyze the basic body plans of animals, we
    find that they illustrate evolutionary trends.
  • Four major advances (in order)
  • Multicellular body plan
  • Bilaterally symmetrical body plan
  • Tube-within-a-tube body plan
  • Coelomate body plan

19
3 Major Bilateral Body Plans
  • Acoelomates (A-SEE-LOW-MATES)
  • Pseudocoelomates
  • Coelomates
  • Each plan consists of 3 cell layers endoderm,
    mesoderm, ectoderm

20
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21
Acoelomates
  • These animals have no other cavity than the gut.
  • They are often called the solid worms.

22
Pseudocoelomates
  • These animals have a body cavity (the
    pseudocoelom) which is not completely lined with
    mesoderm.
  • The tube within a tube body plan.
  • This category is also composed of mostly worms.

23
Coelomates
  • These animals have a true coelom lined with
    mesodermal peritoneum.
  • Most animals are coelomate (EARTHWORM)

24
KINGDOM ANIMALIA
  • 10 PHYLA
  • Porifera
  • Cnidaria
  • Rotifera
  • Platyhelminthes
  • Nematoda
  • Annelida
  • Mollusca
  • Arthropoda
  • Echinodermata
  • 10. Chordata

Invertebrates
Vertebrates
25
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26
Phylum Porifera
  • Sponges
  • Very primitive, no true tissues
  • Supported by spongin (protein fibers) or spicules
    (mineral crystals)
  • Sessile animals live attached to rocks.
  • Get food/ oxygen from water that is pumped
    through their hollow bodies by cells with
    flagella
  • Filter feeders
  • Reproduce through budding and sperm/eggs

27
Phylum Porifera
28
  • Flagellated choanocytes - Filter food / O2 from
    the water passing through the porous body

29
Phylum Cnidaria
  • Have true tissue no organs
  • Have a simple skeletal system
  • Excretion through same opening used to pump food/
    water through
  • Free-floating or sessile
  • 2 stages of life cycle- medusa/polyp
  • Budding/sexual reproduction

30
Polyp stage
Medusa stage
  • Cnidaria
  • Corals, Jellyfish, Sea Anemones

31
  • Cnidarians have a gastrovascular cavity and
    cnidocytes on tentacles that sting prey

32
PHYLUM ROTIFERA
  • Very small size and mostly soft bodies
  • Microscopic, mostly aquatic-found in many
    freshwater and moist soil
  • Complete digestive tract with mouth and anus
  • Body cavities that are partially lined by
    mesoderm- coelomates.
  • Crown of cilia around the mouth of the rotifer
    that makes them appear to whirl like a wheel
  • Tiny mouths primarily omnivorous, unicellular
    algae and other phytoplankton
  • Sexual reproduction

33
Phylum Rotifera
34
Unsegmented Worms
  • Roundworms and flatworms are among the simplest
    bilaterally symmetrical animals
  • Flatworms dont need respiratory or circulatory
    systems
  • Thin flat bodies absorb oxygen and release CO2
    and wasted directly in the surrounding water.
  • Considered parasitic, they live in the digestive
    systems of other animals.
  • Nematodes, or roundworms, are less than 1 mm
    long.
  • There are loads of nematodes in soil and water.
  • Some are decomposers others parasites of animals
    or plants
  • Pinworms and hookworms in soil burrow into the
    skin of people who go barefoot outdoors
  • Trichina worms infest people who eat undercooked
    pork or wild game.

35
Phylum Platyhelminthes
  • Flatworms (tapeworms, Planaria)
  • 3 cell layers- Acoelomates
  • Bilaterally symmetrical
  • No respiratory or circulatory systems
    gastrovascular cavity and organized response
    mechanisms
  • Thin flat bodies absorb oxygen and release CO2
    and wasted directly in the surrounding water.
  • Reproduce by splitting in 2
  • Some parasitic, they live in the digestive
    systems of other animals.

36
  • A planarian has a gastrovascular cavity and a
    simple ner vous system

37
  • Flukes and tapeworms are parasitic flatworms

Figure 18.7B
38
Phylum Nematoda
  • Roundworms
  • Less than 1 mm long Live in soil and water.
  • Sexual reproduction- male sperm/female egg
  • Some are decomposers, others are parasites of
    animals or plants
  • Pseudocoelom complete digestive system
  • Pinworms and hookworms in soil burrow into the
    skin of people who go barefoot outdoors Trichina
    worms infest people who eat undercooked pork or
    wild game. (cause Elephantitis- swelling of
    appendages due to blocking of fluid movement in
    blood vessels by worms)

39
Phylum Nematoda
40
Simple Invertebrates Lab
  • Covers Porifera, Rotifers, Nematoda, Cnidaria,
    and Platyhelminthes

41
Animalia Notes continued in Part 2 power point.
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