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(Structural) Cohesion in Organizations

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Title: (Structural) Cohesion in Organizations


1
(Structural) Cohesion in Organizations
Douglas R. White University of California
Irvine With James Moody The Ohio State
University
Séminaire " Réseaux et régulation " Lasmas,
IRESCO, Paris, June 2003
2
Structural Cohesion for Organizations
  • Part One Predictive Cohesion Theory for
    Cohesive Blocks and Ridges in Organizations
  • Theory and Dynamical Networks Case Study
    Examples using Pajek
  • k-ridges of Structural Cohesion (an extension of
    Friedkins work on cohesion in formal
    organizations)
  • Cohesive Blocks in High School Friendships (w
    Moody)
  • Cohesive Dynamics the splitting of blocks in
    organizations (with Harary)
  • Cohesion Dynamics in Biotechnology (with Powell)
  • Part Two Predictive Cohesion Theory for
    Marriage, Class, Community and Ethnicity

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Structural Cohesion for Organizations, Kinship
Networks and Demography
  • Outline Part Two
  • Introduction Concepts for Network Cohesion in
    Marriage, Class, Community and Ethnicity
  • A Network Approach to Marriage Rules and
    Strategies via Controlled Demographic Simulation
  • Representing Kinship as A Network P-graphs
  • Case Study Examples
  • Emergence and Fission of Groups in Social
    Networks
  • Elite and Class Cohesion via Structural Endogamy
  • Community/Ethnic Cohesion via Structural Endogamy

20
Introduction some questions of interest
  • 1 What is the influence of demography on social
    structure and the reverse?
  • 2 How does one measure the demography of marriage
    and network behaviors in human populations?
  • 3 What is the influence of social structure on
    such behaviors?
  • For this purpose social structure is the
    network of social bonds among people and with
    things to which people have significant links
    (property, ideas, material and ecological items).
  • Some aspects of social institutions are implied
    or included in this definition insofar as they
    are an emergent result of social/legal/political
    bonds and of responses to demographic pressures.

21
Structural demography might include
  • The social field of kinship as the place of
    (social) reproduction in which structural
    endogamies define the reproductive boundaries of
    social class, ethnic identities, kinship groups,
    and so forth.
  • The social field of groups, in which cohesion and
    coordinated social action emerges within social
    networks and connectivities define the limits of
    cooperation and competition
  • The social field of stratification in which
    groups (or individuals) are situated (i.e. occupy
    structural positions) and centralities define
    inequalities among individuals and groups within
    social networks.

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The importance of measurement concepts in
structural demography
  • Network-based concepts such as structural
    endogamy, multiconnectivity, and centrality, when
    applied to large scale (community/nation)
    networks allows the possibility of a social
    network approach to questions about
  • longitudinal and historical studies of entire
    large populations
  • social studies on norms and behavior
  • studies of the relation between the structural
    positions of individuals and their behavior
  • relationships between social structure and
    demographic variables

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Cohesion via multiple independent paths
  • The cohesion of a graph G is independent of path
    distances between nodes, and is in this sense a
    distributed property of G.
  • Why do we expect that multiple independent paths,
    independent of distances among nodes, will have
    important effects above and beyond proximal and
    highly distance-dependant effects of interaction?
  • Briefly, independent of distance (a) Two nodes
    with k node-independent paths are k times as
    resistant to being pulled apart than if they are
    connected by a single path, and (b) The effects
    of k node-independent paths within cohesive
    blocks are convergent and their effects may thus
    be self reinforcing. The higher the connectivity
    k, the more cohesive blocks are redundantly
    connected (solidary) in this way, and the greater
    their potential to act as amplifiers for coherent
    patterns of organization.
  • This concept is useful for generating hypotheses
    relating to social networks generally and to
    kinship networks in particular.

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Applications of Structural Cohesion
  • Emergence and Fission of Groups in Social
    Networks
  • Elite and Class Cohesion
  • Community/Ethnic Cohesion
  • The Cohesiveness of Blocks in Social Networks
    Node Connectivity and Conditional Density (drw
    and Frank Harary). 2001. Sociological Methodology
    2001, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 305-359
  • Social Cohesion and Embeddedness A hierarchical
    conception of social groups (Moody and White).
    2003. American Sociological Review 68(1)101-24.

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Controlled Demographic Simulation A Network
Approach to Discovering Marriage Rules and
Strategies
  • In a quantitative science of social structure
    that includes marriage and kinship, how does one
  • define and evaluate marriage strategies relative
    to random baselines?
  • separate randomizing strategy from
    preferential strategy?
  • detect atomistic strategies (partial, selective)
    as well as global or elementary marriage-rules
    or strategies?
  • Controlled Simulation of Marriage Systems,
    1999. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social
    Simulation 3(2). White

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Defining the phenomena of endogamy
  • Endogamy is the custom of marrying only within
    the limits of a clan or tribe.
  • Practical Strategies
  • By categories/attributes
  • suffers from problems of specification error
  • By network relinking
  • the generalized phenomena of structural endogamy
    as blocks of generalized relinking, (a special
    case of network cohesion) with
  • Subblocks of k-relinkings of k families, with
    g-depth in generations
  • Subblocks of consanguinal (blood) marriage as
    within-family relinkings

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Data and Representation Building Kinship Networks
  • To analyze large-scale kinship networks, we need
    a generalizable graph representation of kinship
    networks.
  • Problems
  • Cultural definitions of kin lead to
    cross-cultural ambiguity
  • Forced to pick primary relations (marriage,
    descent) against implied relations (siblings,
    cousins, etc.) or include a complete graph with
    multiple labeling

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Programs Availability PAJEK
  • PAJEK reads genealogical datasets (.ged files)
    both the usual Ego format and in Pgraph format,
    with dotted female lines (p Dots) and solid male
    lines.
  • PAJEK Network/Partition/Components/Bicomponent
    computes structural endogamy
  • PAJEK Network/Partition/Depth/Genealogy computes
    genealogical depth. This enabled 2D or 3D
    drawings of kinship networks.
  • Manuals for p-graph kinship analysis and
    discussions of software programs multimedia
    representations are contained in
  • 1) Analyzing Large Kinship and Marriage Networks
    with pgraph and Pajek, Social Science Computer
    Review 17(3)245-274. 1999 Douglas R. White,
    Vladimir Batagelj Andrej Mrvar.
  • 2) http//eclectic.ss.uci.edu/pgraph
  • 3) http//vlado.fmf.uni-lj.si/pub/networks/pajek

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Applications of Structural Endogamy Social Class
  • Social class as a general way of life, a
    sub-culture, tends to be hereditary because (a)
    individuals from the same sub-culture tend to
    intermarry, and (b) parents bring up their
    children to imitate themselves. (Leach, 1970).
  • If we were to examine the extent to which
    particular social class formations were
    concomitant with structural endogamy, we would
    expect that
  • Families involved would know "good families and
    "suitable matches,
  • not all children of the class would be "required"
    to marry within the class, but social class
    inscription would take place through the diffuse
    agency of relinking by marriage,
  • which could both validate the social standing of
    the individual and constitute the diffuse but
    relinked social unit -- endogamic block -- of
    class formation.

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Organizational Applications of Structural
Endogamy Social Class Carinthian Farmers
Class is rooted in relations to property, but
the holding of property is particularistic, bound
by social relations that channel its inheritance
within particular sets of personal biographies,
such as those linked by kinship and marriage. As
property flows through a social network, its
biography unfolds as a history of the transfer
from person to person or group to group.
(p.162) Institutions (such as class), emerge out
of the networked actions and choices devolving in
turn in specific and changing historical context.
A duality of persons and property, each linked
through the others, thus characterizes the class
system.
Source 1997 Class, Property and Structural
Endogamy Visualizing Networked Histories,
Theory and Society 25161-208. Lilyan Brudner and
Douglas White
39
Organizational Applications of Structural
Endogamy Social Class Carinthian Farmers
  • Empirical setting Inheritance of property among
    families in an Austrian Village
  • Background In the Austrian farming valleys of
    southern Carinthia, the perpetuation of Slovenian
    ethnicities and Windisch dialects has been
    associated with heirship of farmsteads. Unlike
    many rural areas (and as predicted by Weber and
    others), farms tended to be inherited complete,
    without the kind of splitting that fractures
    classes.
  • Main hypothesis That two social classes emerged
    historically in this village and have long
    remained distinct as a product of differential
    marriage strategies.
  • The mechanism for keeping land intact is that a
    structurally endogamous farmstead-owner social
    class emerged from marriages that relinked stem
    family or heirship lines that were already
    intermarried. The relinked couples inheriting
    farmsteads recombined primary heirships with
    secondary quitclaim land parcels allowing
    stability in reconstituting impartible-core
    farmsteads.

Source 1997 Class, Property and Structural
Endogamy Visualizing Networked Histories,
Theory and Society 25161-208. Lilyan Brudner and
Douglas White
40
Organizational Applications of Structural
Endogamy Social Class Carinthian Farmers
  • Data
  • Extensive field work
  • Archival Records of farmstead transfers starting
    in the 16th century
  • Genealogical histories on families collected by
    Brudner
  • Supplemented from data collected by White from
    gravestones and church records
  • Facts about the setting
  • Village population has been (relatively) stable
    from 1759 1961, fluctuating between 618 (1923)
    to 720 (1821)
  • Most transfers are through inheritance, but the
    data includes purchases as well.
  • Daughters tend to move to their husbands house of
    residence
  • Purchase of farmsteads for sons is common, but
    rare for daughters
  • Daughters tend to bring a land dowry to a
    marriage

Source 1997 Class, Property and Structural
Endogamy Visualizing Networked Histories,
Theory and Society 25161-208. Lilyan Brudner and
Douglas White
41
Organizational Applications of Structural
Endogamy Social Class Carinthian Farmers
Source 1997 Class, Property and Structural
Endogamy Visualizing Networked Histories,
Theory and Society 25161-208. Lilyan Brudner and
Douglas White
42
Organizational Applications of Structural
Endogamy Social Class Carinthian Farmers
Source 1997 Class, Property and Structural
Endogamy Visualizing Networked Histories,
Theory and Society 25161-208. Lilyan Brudner and
Douglas White
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Organizational Applications of Structural
Endogamy Social Class Carinthian Farmers
Source 1997 Class, Property and Structural
Endogamy Visualizing Networked Histories,
Theory and Society 25161-208. Lilyan Brudner and
Douglas White
45
Organizational Applications of Structural
Endogamy Elite Structural Endogamy Rural
Javanese Elites
Empirical Setting Muslim village elites have
their own compounds and extensive landholdings
that qualify them for village leadership. They
often marry blood relatives, while commoners do
not. Key questions Javanese peasant villages
are often characterized as a loose social
structure. Is the blood-marriage endogamy we see
among village elites simply due to the
demographic constraints imposed by very
restricted size of the elite group, with the
elites and commoners sharing the same loose
rules of marriage? Data Extensive field work,
genealogies and ethnography by Thomas Schweizer
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  • Statistical tests of the STATUS ENDOGAMY
    hypothesis using simulation tests
  • for a Javanese Village (Dukuh Hamlet and Muslim
    Elites), Test of Actual versus Simulated
    Marriage among Consanguineal Kin conclusion no
    preferred marriages beyond status endogamy
  • key A frequency of actual marriages with a
    given type of relative
  • S frequency of simulated random marriages
    with a given type of relative
  • TA total of actual relatives of this type
  • TS total of simulated relatives of this
    type
  • Javanese elites Dukuh Hamlet
    3-Way Test
  • A S TA TS p type A S TA TS p type
  • 1 1 0 4 3 .625 FBD 0 1 9 12 .591 FBD
    p1.0
  • 2 1 2 2 3 .714 MBD 1 0 11 16 .429 MBD
    p1.0
  • 3 2 1 3 2 .714 FZDD 0 0 11 0 FZDD
    p1.0
  • 4 0 1 6 7 .571 ZD 0 0 18 24 ZD
    p1.0
  • 0 0 11 11 Z 0 0 36 43 Z
  • 0 0 4 4 BD 0 0 22 27 BD
  • 0 0 2 2 ZSD
  • 0 0 3 3 BDD 0 0 8 8 BDD
  • 0 0 3 3 ZDD

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Organizational Applications of Structural
Endogamy Social Integration through Marriage
Systems Kandyan Irrigation Farmers in Sri Lanka
  • Results Reveals that Leach had not seen, and
    could not for lack of requisite tools of
    analysis, that marriages were organized in
    response to a logic called dividedness and (in
    another form) sidedness.
  • the matrimonial network is bipartite, the
    marriages of the parents and those of the
    children divide themselves into two distinct
    ensembles (which have nothing to do with
    moieties).
  • Graphic technique Nuclear families as the unit
    of p-graph analysis, analysis of blood marriages,
    sibling sets and of inheritance or bequests
    revealed the underlying logic of marital
    sidedness.
  • Key concepts bipartite graph and sidedness
    sidedness is an empirical bipartition of a
    matrimonial network, reiterated from one
    generation to another following a sexual
    criterion. The next slide the sidedness of the
    Pul Eliyan networks operating through the male
    line, with some female heirs acting as agnatic
    channels for inheritance where there are no male
    heirs (I.e., they lack brothers).

Source 1998 Network Mediation of Exchange
Structures Ambilateral Sidedness and Property
Flows in Pul Eliya, Sri Lanka (Houseman and
White). pp. 59-89, In, Thomas Schweizer and drw,
eds. Kinship, Networks, and Exchange. CUP.
50
P-graph of Pul Eliyan Sidedness
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P-graph of Pul Eliyan Sidedness and Property
Transactions
Curved lines follow property flows, dashed lines
are gifts. Property re-connects across the
sided lines.
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  • Frequencies of Actual versus Simulated
    Consanguineal Marriages for Pul Eliya, Sri Lanka.
    Conclusions All blood marriages are
    patri-sided, and secondarily, only
  • MBD is a marriage that is especially preferred
  • Type Actual Simul Total Total
    Fisher-----Blood Marriage------
    (2)Viri-Sided?
  • of Mar. Freq. Freq. Actual Simul Exact type
    P-graph notation Actual Simul
  • 12 5 0 40 38 p.042 MBD(1)GFFG
    yes
  • 2 3 1 39 40 .317 FZD GGFF
    yes
  • 1 0 1 56 57 .508 FZ GGF
    no
  • 3 0 1 6 6 .538 FFFZDSD
    GGGGFGFF no
  • 4 1 0 3 1 .800 FFMZDSSD
    GGGFFGGFF yes
  • 5 0 1 5 3 .444 FFMBDSDD
    GGGFFFGFG no
  • 6 1 0 18 15 .558 FMBSD
    GGFFGG yes
  • 7 0 1 17 12 .433 FMBDD
    GGFFFG no
  • 8 2 1 18 12 .661 FMZDD
    GGFFFF yes
  • 9 0 1 9 5 .399 FMMBSSD
    GGFFFGGG no
  • 10 0 1 4 5 .600 FMMFZSSD
    GGFFGFGGF yes
  • 11 0 1 6 3 .400 FMMFZDSD
    GGFFGFGFF yes
  • 13 0 1 25 27 .528 MBSD GFFGG
    yes
  • 14 1 0 14 10 .600 MFZDD
    GFGFFF yes

Source 1998 Network Mediation of Exchange
Structures Ambilateral Sidedness and Property
Flows in Pul Eliya, Sri Lanka (Houseman and
White). pp. 59-89, In, Thomas Schweizer and drw,
eds. Kinship, Networks, and Exchange. CUP.
53
  • Correlating Actual versus Simulated non-MBD
    marriages for Pul Eliya, showing tendency towards
    a Viri-Sided (Dravidian) Marriage Rule
  • Viri-Sided Unsided
  • Actual 18 0
  • Simulated 5 7
  • (p.0004 p.000004 using the binomial test of
    5050 expected)

Source 1998 Network Mediation of Exchange
Structures Ambilateral Sidedness and Property
Flows in Pul Eliya, Sri Lanka (Houseman and
White). pp. 59-89, In, Thomas Schweizer and drw,
eds. Kinship, Networks, and Exchange. CUP.
54
  • Correlating Balanced vs. Unbalanced Cycles in
    Actual versus Simulated marriage networks for Pul
    Eliya, showing a perfectly Sided (Dravidian)
    Marriage Rule
  • A. Viri-sidedness
  • Actual Expected
  • Balanced Cycles (Even length) 25 17.5
  • Unbalanced Cycles (Odd Length) 10 17.5
  • p.008
  • (all exceptions involve relinkings between
    nonconsanguineal relatives)
  • B. Amblilateral-sidedness
    (womens sidedness adjusted by
    inheritance rules)
  • Actual Expected
  • Balanced Cycles (Even length) 35 17.5
  • Unbalanced Cycles (Odd Length) 0 17.5
  • p.00000000003

Source 1998 Network Mediation of Exchange
Structures Ambilateral Sidedness and Property
Flows in Pul Eliya, Sri Lanka (Houseman and
White). pp. 59-89, In, Thomas Schweizer and drw,
eds. Kinship, Networks, and Exchange. CUP.
55
Organizational Applications of Structural
Endogamy A Turkish Nomadic Clan as prototype of
Middle Eastern segmented lineage systems The
Role of Marital Cohesion
Empirical Setting An Arabized nomadic clan
having the characteristic segmented patrilineages,
lineage endogamy, and FBD (fathers brothers
daughter) marriages Key questions Is this a
prototype of a widespread variety of
decentralized self-organizing lineage system
stemming Arab societies or societies Arabized
along with the spread of Islam in 7th and 8th
century? Data Genealogies on two thousand clan
members and their ancestors, from 1800 to the
present, a long-term ethnography by Professor
Ulla C. Johansen, University of Cologne
56
Organizational Applications of Structural
Endogamy A Turkish Nomadic Clan as prototype of
Middle Eastern segmented lineage systems The
Role of Marital Cohesion
Sources 2002 Ulla Johansen and Douglas R.
White, Collaborative Long-Term Ethnography And
Longitudinal Social Analysis of a Nomadic Clan In
Southeastern Turkey, pp. 81-99, Chronicling
Cultures Long-Term Field Research in
Anthropology, eds. R. van Kemper and A. Royce.
AltaMira Press. 2003 Douglas R. White and
Michael Houseman The Navigability of Strong Ties
Small Worlds, Tie Strength and Network Topology,
Complexity 8(1). 2003 Douglas R. White and Ulla
Johansen. Network Analysis and Ethnographic
Problems Process Models of a Turkish Nomad Clan.
Lexington and AltaMira. In Press.
57
p-graph of the conicality of the nomad clan
Organizational Applications of Structural
Endogamy A Turkish Nomadic Clan as prototype of
Middle Eastern segmented lineage systems The
Role of Marital Cohesion
Data
Generations
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Organizational Applications of Structural
Endogamy A Turkish Nomadic Clan as prototype of
Middle Eastern segmented lineage systems The
Role of Marital Cohesion
Structural Endogamy of the nomad clan
Results
  • The index of relinking of a kinship graph is a
    measure of the extent to which marriages take
    place among descendents of a limited set of
    ancestors.
  • For the nomad clan the index of relinking is
    75, which is extremely high by world standards.
  • This is a picture of the structurally endogamous
    or relinked marriages within the nomad clan
    (nearly 75 or all marriages)

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Organizational Applications of Structural
Endogamy A Turkish Nomadic Clan as prototype of
Middle Eastern segmented lineage systems The
Role of Marital Cohesion
Results reversing axes, types of marriage are
ranked here to show that numbers of blood
marriages follow a power-law (indexical of
self-organizing preferential attachments) while
affinal relinking frequencies follow an
exponential distribution
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Organizational Applications of Structural
Endogamy A Turkish Nomadic Clan as prototype of
Middle Eastern segmented lineage systems The
Role of Marital Cohesion
Results Summary
  • Who stays and who returns to village life is
    predicted from kinship bicomponent membership.
  • Bicomponent relinking also plays a role in the
    emergence of a root ancestor, and of more
    localized root ancestors for different levels of
    kinship groupings.
  • Dynamic reconfigurations of political factions
    and their leaders are predicted from ensembles
    with different levels of edge-independent
    connectivity.
  • An index of the decline of cohesion of the clan
    would be the fragmentation of cohesive components
    in later generations...
  • Key concepts bicomponent, edge-independent
    paths, connectivity.
  • Graphic technique nuclear families as the unit
    of p-graph analysis.
  • An explanation of methods will be found in a book
    ms. Social Dynamics of a Nomadic Clan in
    Southeastern Turkey An Introduction to Networked
    Histories. Douglas White and Ulla Johansen. For
    submission to Westview or Altamira Press.

64
Conclusion?
  • Predictive Cohesion Theory has broad applications
    and empirical support in a variety of studies

65
Bibliography Brudner and White. 1997 Class,
Property and Structural Endogamy Visualizing
Networked Histories, Theory and Society
25161-208. Houseman and White. 1998 Network
Mediation of Exchange Structures Ambilateral
Sidedness and Property Flows in Pul Eliya, Sri
Lanka pp. 59-89, In, Thomas Schweizer and drw,
eds. Kinship, Networks, and Exchange. CUP.
Moody and White. 2003. Social Cohesion and
Embeddedness A hierarchical conception of social
groups American Sociological Review 68101-24.
White. 1997. Structural Endogamy and the
graphe de parenté Mathématique, Informatique et
sciences humaines 137107-125. White. 1999.
Controlled Simulation of Marriage Systems
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social
Simulation 3(2). White, Batagelj and Mrvar.
1999. Analyzing Large Kinship and Marriage
Networks with pgraph and Pajek, Social Science
Computer Review 17245-274. White and Harary.
2001. The Cohesiveness of Blocks in Social
Networks Node Connectivity and Conditional
Density Sociological Methodology
31305-359 White and Jorion. 1996. Kinship
Networks and Discrete Structure Theory
Applications and Implications. Social Networks
18267-314 White and Schweizer 1998. Kinship,
Property and Stratification in Rural Java A
Network Analysis pp. 36-58, In, Thomas Schweizer
and Douglas White, eds. Kinship, Networks, and
Exchange. Cambridge University Press.
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