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Wind Power

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Wind Power Would you like to see and increase in wind power production? Yes No Which statement best captures your opinion of the appearance of wind farms? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Wind Power


1
Wind Power

2
Would you like to see and increase in wind power
production?
  1. Yes
  2. No

3
Which statement best captures your opinion of the
appearance of wind farms?
  1. They are a blight on the landscape
  2. I dont really notice them
  3. They are really cool looking.
  4. By day they are fine, but I hate the lights at
    night

4
  • Approximately 2 of the solar power that reaches
    the earths surface is converted into wind.
  • 9.92 x 1019 J per year
  • This is 30 times our present energy usage.

5
History
  • Large sailing ships could generate 10,000 hp.
  • Used extensively in Europe in the 19th century
  • Used for pumping water in the US.
  • Most new development for generating electricity

6
  • Early wind generators focused on single large
    generators
  • Grandpas Knob (Vermont) could generate up to
    1.2 MW of power in the 1940s.
  • 200 ft diameter blades

7
  • New interest in wind electricity after oil
    embargo in 1973.
  • Early NASA wind generator (1975) could generate
    100kW of power in 18mph wind. 125 ft long blade
    diameter.

8
  • Boeing Mod 5B wind turbine on Oahu could generate
    3.2 MW of electricity.
  • 320 ft diameter on a 192 ft tall tower

9
Many Different Styles
Darius Rotor
Savonius Rotor
2-Blade Wind Turbine
3-Blade Wind Turbine
American multivane
10
Choice of style depends on application
  • Multi-blade has good starting torque. Good for
    applications like pumps.
  • 3-blade has low starting torque but is more
    efficient at high rotation rates. Used for
    generating electricity

11
Wind Farms
  • Rather than using single large generator, we
    usually use several smaller generators to make
    wind farms

12
Practicalities
  • Wind speed tends to increase with increasing
    height. Optimal height is 300 m.
  • Most commercial wind mill towers are 50m high.
    Get 80 of wind potential at this height.

13
Power in the wind(Betz Limit)
  • P2.83?10-4 D2v3 kW
  • D is the diameter in meters
  • V is the wind speed in meters per second

D2 because area of windmill increase with D2 V3
because KE in wind is proportional to v2 and an
additional v because of rate at which energy is
brought to windmill
14
  • Maximum theoretical efficiency is 59 of the Betz
    limit.
  • Modern windmills are around 75-80 of maximum
    theoretical efficiency

15
  • Note v3 indicates that a wind of 15 miles per
    hour generates 3327 times as much power as a
    wind of 5 miles per hour.

16
Real windmills get 75-80 of this
17
Average Wind Speed at 80 m
18
US Power Grid
19
Rated Output
  • A wind generator has a rated power output a a
    particular wind speed, e.g. 10 kW at 20 mph.
  • If wind speed drops so does power, e.g. if wind
    drops to 15mph, P(15/20)3 10kW 4.2kW.
  • If wind speed increases too much, usually feather
    the blades so they dont get damaged.

20
Home Wind Power?
  • HORNET - LOW WIND SPEED turbines with Split-Core
    PMA
  •  
  • Hornet's are designed for class 3 to 7 or AVERAGE
    wind zones.  
  • Super low cost turbines!
  •  
  • 59" diameter blade
  •  
  • 800 Watts _at_ 33 MPH
  • 1200 Watts MAX. _at_ 65 MPH (under load)
  • 500.00
  • Note at 11mph P800/2730W
  •  

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24
States with more than 2000MW of Installed Wind
Capacity (2010)
State Installed Wind Capacity (2010) (MW)
Texas 10085
Iowa 3675
California 3177
Minnesota 2192
Washington 2104
Oregon 2104
Illinois 2046

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28
Installed Wind Capacity
29
Concerns About Wind Power
  • Wind is intermittent not consistently reliable
    15-20 is considered safe.
  • Aesthetics.
  • Noise New designs are very quiet
  • Danger to birds and bats. Needs more study.
  • Potential electromagnetic disturbance for TV/
    Radio

30
Potential Solutions
  • Use large scale batteries to even out supply.
  • Research on Vanadium Redox batteries.
  • Mid scale test facility is being constructed.

31
Pro-Wind Site Estimates
Man-made structure/technology Associated bird deaths per year in US (Source)
Feral and domestic cats Hundreds of millions (AWEA)
Power lines 130-174 million (AWEA)
Windows (residential and commercial 100 million-1billion (TreeHugger)
Pesticides 70 million (AWEA)
Automobiles 60-80 million (AWEA)
Light communication towers 40-50 million (AWEA)
Wind turbines 10-40 thousand (ABC)
32
Help for the birds
  • Site their farms mostly on land that's already
    disturbed (i.e. farmland.)
  • Site wind farms out of migratory flight paths
  • Make the transmission lines that connect to wind
    farms more bird-friendly
  • Monitor the impact of wind farms on birds.
  • Set aside land in affected areas for bird
    habitat.
  • Paint wind turbines anything but white

33
Advantages
  • Renewable
  • NO CO2 emissions
  • Competitive price per kW-h
  • Less than 1 of the land would be used for
    foundations and access roads, the other 99 could
    still be used for farming.
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