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Food Science and Biotechnology

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Food Science and Biotechnology Biotechnology II COMPETENCY: 13.00 Examine techniques and biological processes in food science related to biotechnology. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Food Science and Biotechnology


1
Food Science and Biotechnology
  • Biotechnology II

2
COMPETENCY 13.00
  • Examine techniques and biological processes in
    food science related to biotechnology.

3
OBJECTIVE 13.01
  • Explore food borne pathogens and spoilage
    organisms in relation to agricultural
    biotechnology.

4
Common Food Bourne Pathogens
  • 1. Salmonella enteriditus
  • A common bacteria responsible for severe cases of
    food poisoning and digestive ailments in humans.
  • Often transmitted through contact with infected
    animals or ingestion of raw or undercooked egg
    that has contacted a contaminated shell.
  • 2. Campylobacter jejuni
  • Common bacterial pathogen found in undercooked
    meats, unpasteurized milk, and other contaminated
    foods.
  • Responsible for more than 10 of all instances of
    diarrhea in the US.

5
Salmonella enteriditus
Source http//www.magma.ca/pavel/science/Salmone
lla.htm
6
Campylobacter jejuni
Scanning electron microscope image of
Campylobacter jejuni, illustrating its corkscrew
appearance and bipolar flagella. Source
Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary
Medicine, Blacksburg, Virginia.
7
Common Food Bourne Pathogens
  • 3. Bacterial contaminants usually spread by
    physical contact or ingestion of a contaminated
    liquid or solid.
  • 4. Fungi
  • A variety of fungi are used in the production of
    foods, including cheeses and yogurt.
  • Other fungi are contaminants, some even toxic.
  • Often appear on breads with high moisture and
    sugar content, citrus fruits and grains.
  • Usually spread by airborne spores as opposed.
  • Often appear as fuzzy, blue growth in canned corn
    or fuzzy, white spots on bread.

8
Preventing Food Bourne Pathogens
  • 1. Poultry Other Meats
  • Meat should be heated in an oven to 74C for at
    least 15 seconds.
  • 2. The optimal temperature range for the growth
    of harmful bacteria in foods is between 4C
    60C.
  • Low temperatures usually cause dormancy in
    bacteria.
  • High temperatures can deactivate or even destroy
    bacteria.

9
OBJECTIVE 13.02
  • Summarize enzyme activities and fermentation
    processes that are useful in the food processing
    industry.

10
Enzyme Activities
  • 1. Enzymes are specialized proteins that act as
    catalysts to speed up chemical reactions in
    organisms or compounds.
  • Enzymes are incredibly important in processes as
    diverse as digestion, respiration, and
    fermentation.
  • It is enzymes that convert lactose in milk during
    the process of making yogurt that allows lactose
    intolerant people to consume the product.
  • 2. There are 26 enzymes almost always ending in
    the suffix ase.
  • Important enzymes include amylase, protease, and
    lipase.

11
Fermentation Processes
  • 1. Fermentation- the anaerobic conversion of
    sugars in plant materials to simple chemical
    compounds.
  • Alcoholic fermentation the most common and
    important in biotechnology.
  • The conversion of sugars during the breaking down
    of plant materials into Carbon Dioxide and
    Ethanol.
  • Carried out by yeast.
  • 2. The study of fermentation processes used in
    bread making, wine making and the formation of
    other food products is known as Zymology.

12
Yeast
  • Important microorganisms in the production of
    several types of foods.
  • Yeast are NOT BACTERIA- but fungi.
  • pH and temperature are important for the function
    of yeast in fermentation and other processes, as
    high temps or extreme ph levels will kill the
    microorganisms.

13
OBJECTIVE 13.03
  • Discuss the impact of genetic engineering on food
    preservation, food quality and nutritional value.

14
Potential Applications of Biotechnology in Food
Science
  • 1. Crops and animals can be genetically
    engineered to
  • Survive drought and other harsh local conditions.
  • Last many times longer in storage than normal
    variations.
  • Ex- The removal of genes coding for the
    production of ethylene in fruit code greatly
    prolong shelf life by preventing decay.
  • Possess increased nutritional value to address
    vitamin or energy absences in the diets of a
    population.
  • Golden Rice and other crops designed to address
    nutritional deficiencies often used genes from
    microorganisms or animals in plants to produce
    more vitamins or other beneficial compounds.

15
Potential Applications of Biotechnology in Food
Science
  • Exhibit insect resistance, negating the need for
    the use of pesticides that can leave toxic
    residues on crops.
  • Successful use of biotechnology insect controls
    like Bt have not only reduced insect damage to
    crops without the use of pesticides, but also
    reduced the occurrence of fungal damage during
    long term crop storage.
  • (1) Fungal pathogens often occur in the wounds or
    around the waste of plant insect pests.
  • Remove negative substances found in plant or
    animal products
  • Ex The removal of caffeine from coffee beans.

16
Potential Applications of Biotechnology in Food
Science
  • 2. Biotechnology can be used to simplify the
    production of foods, decreasing environmental
    strain and impacts.
  • The enzyme rennin, used to make cheese, once had
    to be collected from the digestive system of
    cattle.
  • Rennin is now produced in unlimited quantities in
    genetically engineered bacteria, requiring little
    energy, care or processing.

17
OBJECTIVE 13.04
  • Demonstrate proper food preservation and
    sterilization techniques.

18
Food Preservation Techniques
  • 1. Freezing- the placement of a food product in
    subzero temperatures.
  • Increases the shelf life of many foods
    indefinitely with varying impacts on food
    quality.
  • Will NOT KILL most common bacteria (Salmonella,
    Listeria etc) only make them dormant.
  • Most foods should not be refrozen after thawing.

19
Food Preservation Techniques
  • 2. Irradiation- the treatment of food products
    with low levels of ionizing radiation to kill
    microorganisms in food.
  • IS NOT DANGEROUS FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION.
  • Does not alter food quality and taste, and is in
    fact, the least invasive method of sterilization
    for many food products including meats.

20
Food Preservation Techniques
  • 3. Dehydration / Salting- preservation methods
    dependent on the removal of water from food
    products, providing an inhospitable environment
    for microorganisms.
  • Highly effective for meats and many other foods,
    but changes taste and texture drastically.
  • Used throughout history- the only effective
    method of storing food through much of ancient
    history.

21
Food Preservation Techniques
  • 4. Pickling- utilizes a vinegar-based solution to
    soak foods, creating an environment in which
    bacteria may not survive.
  • Effective, but drastically alters taste.
  • Environment must be acidic enough to be effective.

22
Food Preservation Techniques
  • 5. Steam Sterilization- utilizes super heated
    water to kill surface bacteria.
  • Often used in the processing of meats.

23
Food Preservation Techniques
  • 6. Oven / Microwave
  • Physically cooking foods to proper internal
    temperatures ensures the destruction of harmful
    bacteria.
  • This is the reason most restaurants will not
    serve rare hamburger.

24
Indicators of Food Safety
  • 1. Food containers and process are specifically
    designed to ensure food safety.
  • The presence of a raised center on the lid of
    home canned vegetables or store purchased foods
    indicates likely bacterial contamination.
  • Botulism is an example of a toxic bacteria often
    occurring in such instances.
  • Abnormal visual growths or smells are often an
    indication of the presence of bacterial or fungal
    contamination.
  • Many contaminants are NOT readily recognizable.
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