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Title: ENGL 6310/7310 Popular Culture Studies


1
ENGL 6310/7310 Popular Culture Studies Fall
2011 PH 300 M 240-540 Dr. David Lavery
2
Twin Peaks Shes dead, wrapped in plastic.
3
Twin Peaks Coopers Dream
The famous dream sequence in Episode 2 of Season 1
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Paratext Throughout this book, then, while I
will occasionally use the above terms as context
deems appropriate, I will more frequently refer
to paratexts and to paratextuality. I take these
terms from Gerard Genette, who first used them to
discuss the variety of materials that surround a
literary text. A fuller definition of these terms
will be offered in chapter 1, but my attraction
to them stems from the meaning of the prefix
"para-," defined by the OED both as "beside,
adjacent to," and "beyond or distinct from, but
analogous to." A "paratext" is both "distinct
from" and alikeor, I will argue, intrinsically
part ofthe text. The book's thesis is that
paratexts are not simply add-ons, spinoffs, and
also-rans they create texts, they manage them,
and they fill them with many of the meanings that
we associate with them. Just as we ask paramedics
to save lives rather than leave the job to
others, and just as a parasite feeds off, lives
in, and can affect the running of its host's
body, a paratext constructs, lives in, and can
affect the running of the text. (6)
7
Lavery Paratexts
Forthcoming Books on Joss Whedon, TV Finales,
The Sopranos, Supernatural, Television Art (a
text book), TV Auteurs
8
Television Paratexts Contributed To
9
Dr. David Lavery
Founding Co-Editor, Co-Editor (2001- )
10
Founding Co-Editor
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  • Full of Secrets Critical Approaches to Twin
    Peaks
  • Edited by David Lavery
  • Detroit Wayne State University Press, 1994
  • Contributors
  • Acknowledgements
  • Introduction "The Semiotics of Cobbler Twin
    Peaks' Interpretive Community David Lavery
  • Bad Ideas The Art and Politics of Twin Peaks
    Jonathan Rosenbaum
  • The Peaks and Valleys of Serial Creativity What
    Happened to/on Twin Peaks Marc Dolan
  • "Do You Enjoy Making the Rest of Us Feel Stupid?"
    alt.tv.twinpeaks, the Trickster Author, and
    Viewer Mastery Henry Jenkins
  • Family Romance, Family Violence, and the
    Fantastic in Twin Peaks Diane Stevenson
  • "Disturbing the Guests with This Racket" Music
    and Twin Peaks Kathryn Kalinak
  • The Canonization of Laura Palmer Christy Desmet
  • Lynching Women A Feminist Reading of Twin Peaks
    Diana Hume George
  • Double Talk in Twin Peaks Alice Kuzniar
  • Infinite Games the Derationalization of
    Detection in Twin Peaks Angela Hague
  • Desire Under the Douglas Firs Entering the Body
    of Reality in Twin Peaks Martha Nochimson

13
Henry Jenkins (1958- ). Comparative media
theorist.
"Do You Enjoy Making the Rest of Us Feel Stupid?"
alt.tv.twinpeaks, the Trickster Author, and
Viewer Mastery Henry Jenkins
14
The series that will change TV. Rodman,
Warren. "The Series that Will Change TV."
Connoisseur, September 1989 139-44. Watch
Promos
15

Mark Frost
16

Mark Frost
17

David Lynch
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1977
1980
1984
1990
1986
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1996
2001
1999
2006
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  • Twin Peaks Generic Allegiances
  • Frost once described Twin Peaks as "a moody, dark
    soap opera murder-mystery, set in a fictional
    town in the Northwest, with an ensemble cast and
    an edge
  • A mystery (Who killed Laura Palmer? drove the
    story for its entire first season and nine
    episodes into the second)
  • A soap opera (it even contained within it another
    soap opera, Invitation to Love
  • an FBI drama (Malach)
  • a detective story (Hague, Nickerson)
  • a sensation novel (Huskey)
  • a western (complete with a Doc right out of
    Gunsmoke and a Sheriff in a cowboy hat)
  • a coffee commercial (Reeves, et al)

23
Peaks Paratexts
  • Ancillary Texts / Commodity Intertexts

24
Peaks Paratexts
  • The Secret Diary of Laura Palmer, written by
    Lynchs daughter Jennifer

25
Peaks Paratexts
  • The Autobiography of F.B.I. Special Agent Dale
    Cooper My Life. My Tapes

26
Peaks Paratexts
  • Diane The Twin Peaks Tapes of Agent Cooper

27
Peaks Paratexts
  • Welcome to Twin Peaks Access Guide to the Town

28
Peaks Paratexts
  • Wrapped in Plastic, a Twin Peaks fanzine

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Major Characters Annie Blackburne (Heather
Graham) Deputy Andy Brennan (Harry Goaz) Bobby
Briggs (Dana Ashbrook) Major Garland Briggs (Don
Davis) Denis(e) Bryson (David Duchovnay) Gordon
Cole (David Lynch) Dale Cooper (Kyle
MacLachlan) Windom Earle (Kenneth Welsh) Laura
Palmer, Maddy Ferguson (Sheryl Lee) Philip Gerard
(One-armed Man (Al Strobel) Donna Hayward (Lara
Flynn-Boyle) Dr. William Hayward (Warren
Frost) Audrey Horne (Sherilyn Fenn) Ben Horne
(Richard Beymer) Jerry Horne (David Patrick
Kelly) James Hurley (James Marshall) Big Ed
Hurley (Everett McGill) Nadine Hurley (Wendy
Robie)
Dr. Lawrence Jacoby (Russ Tamblyn) Norma Jennings
(Peggy Lipton) Hank Jennings (Chris Mulkey) Leo
Johnson (Eric Da Re) Shelley Johnson (Madchen
Amick) The Log Lady (Catherine Coulson) Man from
Another Place (Michael J. Anderson) Catherine
Martell (Piper Laurie) Pete Martell (Jack
Nance) Lucy Moran (Kimmy Robertson) Josie Packard
(Joan Chen) Laura Palmer (Sheryl Lee) Leland
Palmer (Ray Wise) Sarah Palmer (Grace
Zabriskie) Albert Rosenfeld (Miguel
Ferrer) Sheriff Harry S. Truman (Michael Ontkean)
35
Never before, in the history of television, had
a program inspired so many millions of people to
debate and analyze it deeply and excitedly for so
prolonged a period. . . . Twin Peaks generated
the kinds of annotated scrutiny usually
associated with scholarly journals and literary
monographs. . . . David Bianculli, Teleliteracy
36
At 1001 p.m. Thursday, April 19, the telephone
started like a tribal drum. Everybody in the
continental United States--including my children,
my editors, my enemies--wanted to know about the
dwarf. What did the dwarf mean? Why was he
talking backwards? In Cambridge, Massachusetts,
in Madison, Wisconsin, and in Berkeley,
California, there are Twin Peaks-watching parties
every Thursday night, after which . . .
Deconstruction. About the dwarf Like, wow.
Bunuel was mentioned, and Cocteau, and
Fellini. John Leonard, "The Quirky Allure of Twin
Peaks"
37
I have never been able to sit through a whole
episode of Twin Peaks. It's a postmodern soap
opera, which means that every time someone on
screen eats a piece of apple pie, you can hear a
thousand students start typing their doctoral
dissertations on Twin Peaks David Lynch and the
Semiotics of Cobbler. Libby Gelman-Waxner,
Premiere magazine
38
Fandom. Twin Peaks was one of the first
television series to inspire active fan
participation and heavy investment in a current
series. At water coolers around the nation and on
alt.tv.twinpeaks and elsewhere, avid followers of
the show speculated endlessly about the
significance of minute visual details (often
captured and rewatched on their VCRs) and
narrative developments in the series (Jenkins).
Interest in the series was not limited to the
United States Twin Peaks was a cultural
phenomenon in the UK, in Europe, and, especially
in Japan. Even after the shows cancellation,
Japanese flocked to the Pacific Northwest to tour
the actual sites of the series the Double R
Cafe, the Great Northern Hotel, the location
where Laura Palmers body was found, dead,
wrapped in plastic.
39
Twin Peaks DNA dreamy, cinematic (rather than
televisual) style, slow pacing, extreme violence,
emotional excess, disturbing sexuality,
strung-out narrative, accentuation of subtext,
controversial subject matter, lush scoring,
uncanny dream sequences, the demand for complete
attention it placed upon television viewers
accustomed to distraction, its reliance on a
particular kind of irony where the very macabre
and the very mundane combine in such a way as to
reveal the formers perpetual containment in the
latter (David Foster Wallace)
40
  • Lynchian. David Foster Wallace on Lynchs style
    as a filmmaker
  • both extremely personal and extremely remote
  • the absence of linearity and narrative logic
  • the heavy multivalence of the symbolism
  • the glazed opacity of the characters faces
  • the weird ponderous quality of the dialogue
  • the regular deployment of grotesques as
    figurants
  • the precise, painterly way scenes are staged and
    lit
  • the overlush, possibly voyeuristic way that
    violence, deviance, and general hideousness are
    depicted

41
Legacy. Though Twin Peaks did not, as predicted,
radically alter television, it did have a lasting
influence. Northern Exposure (1990-1995), Picket
Fences (1992-1996) and The X-Files
(1993-2002)whose star David Duchovny played a
transvestite Drug Enforcement Administration
agent in Twin Peaksboth colonized television
territory Twin Peaks had opened up, as did, less
successfully, such flops as Eerie, Indiana
(1991), American Gothic (1995-96), Murder One
(1995-97), and Wolf Lake (2001). Though post-Twin
Peaks television has often seemed designed for a
viewership with Attention Deficit Disorder
(Peyton), some of the mediums most important
contemporary creators now think of the series as
a television touchstone both Joss Whedon (Buffy
the Vampire Slayer, Angel) and David Chase (The
Sopranos) speak of Twin Peaks in hushed tones.
And the name itself has become part of the
language to evoke Twin Peaks in relation to
any narrative or any sequence of events is to
label it as strange, inexplicable, unique.
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  • Deny All Knowledge Reading The X-Files
  • Edited by David Lavery, Angela Hague, Marla
    Cartwright (Middle Tennessee State University)
  • The Television Series, Edited by Robert Thompson
  • Syracuse University Press, 1996
  • TABLE OF CONTENTS
  • Contributors ix
  • David Lavery, Angela Hague, Marla Cartwright,
    Introduction. Generation X The X-Files and the
    Cultural Moment (1)
  • Jimmie L. Reeves (Texas Tech University), Mark C.
    Rodgers, and Michael Epstein, University of
    Michigan), Re-Writing Popularity The Cult Files
    (22)
  • Susan J. Clerc (Bowling Green State University),
    DDEB, GATB, MPPB, and Ratboy The X-Files Media
    Fandom, Online and Off (36)
  • Allison Graham (University of Memphis), Are You
    Now or Have You Ever Been? Conspiracy Theory
    and The X-Files (52)
  • Michele Malach (Fort Lewis College), I Want to
    Believe in the FBI The X-Files as an FBI Drama
    (63)
  • Leslie Jones, Last Week We Had an Omen The
    Mythological X-Files (77)
  • Rhonda Wilcox (Gordon College) and J. P. Williams
    (Georgia Southern), What to You Think? The
    X-Files, Liminality, and Gender Pleasure (99)
  • Lisa Parks (University of Wisconsin), Special
    Agent or Monstrosity? Finding the Feminine in
    The X-Files (121)
  • Alec McHoul (Murdoch University, Australia), How
    to Talk the Unknown into Existence An Exercise
    in X-Filology (135)

45
Trust No One Reading The X-Files Edited by
David Lavery, Angela Hague, Marla Cartwright
(Middle Tennessee State University) The
Television Series, Edited by Robert
Thompson Syracuse University Press, 1996 With a
preface by Chris Carter and David Duchovny Not
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The degree to which The X-Files became in the
last decade part of our cultural vocabulary can
be demonstrated by an exchange from a first
season episode of the WB series Angel in which
Kendrick, an obviously sexist male detective,
hassles female detective Kate Lockley (Elizabeth
Rohm), who has come to believe in the reality of
vampires. The following dialogue
ensues Kendrick "Come on, Kate. Everybody
knows you've gone all Scully. Anytime one of
these weird cases crosses anyone's desk you're
always there. What's going on with you?" Kate
"Scully is the skeptic." Kendrick "Huh?" Kate
"Mulder is the believer. Scully is the
skeptic." Kendrick scratches his head "Scully is
the chick, right?" Kate "Yes. But she's not the
one that wants to believe."
48
The Cast Agent Fox Mulder (David Duchovny) Agent
Dana Scully (Gillian Anderson) Agent Monica Reyes
(Annabeth Gish) Agent John Doggett (Robert
Patrick) Associate Director Walter Skinner (Mitch
Pileggi) Deep Throat (Jerry Hardin) Agent Diane
Fowley (Mimi Rogers) Alex Krychek (Nicholas
Lea) The Lone Gunmen (Dean Haglund, Bruce
Harwood, Tom Braidwood) X (Steven Williams) C. G.
B. Spender/The Cigarette-Smoking Man (William B.
Davis) The Well-Manicured Man (John Neville)
49
  • Chris Carter
  • Creator of
  • The X-Files

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  • John Macks Abduction

52
I found it fascinating to hear this, Carter
said. This man Dr. John Mack of Harvard in the
highest levels of academia and a scientist using
rigorous scientific methods had come up with
something quite astounding. So I thought that was
a wonderful entry into explorations of the
paranormal. And so I came up with Mulder and
Scully, the FBI, and this fictional investigative
unit called the X-Files. from Paula Vitaris,
X-Files Filming the Fox Show That Has Become a
Horror and Science Fiction Sensation
53
The series that will change TV. Rodman,
Warren. "The Series that Will Change TV."
Connoisseur, September 1989 139-44.

The Watergate Hearings, 1973
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The X-Files Multiple Generic Allegiances. Paula
Vitaris has noted that XF was akin to one of its
own mutant characters, with its own eclectic
genetic heritage, part police procedural, part
suspense thriller, part action adventure, part
medical drama, part science fiction and part
horror). XF, James Wolcott observes more
simply, is actually televisions first
otherworldly procedural (98).
56
Fandom. Devoted fans (known as X-Philes) turned
their obsession with the series into inspired
Websites that helped newcomers to the series to
get caught up and acclimate themselves to the
X-Files universe. One ambitious, meticulous
X-Files Timeline, to site but one example,
provides a chronology of the series Mythology
that runs to over seventy pages in length (see
Marek, 2002). Some prominent fans even came to
write for the show cyberpunk founder William
Gibson wrote two episodes and horror master
Stephen King one.
57
The X-Files was one of the first shows to
flourish on the Internet self-styled "X-Philes
accrue mountains of data about the show, discuss
it live online, and write e-mail to the
producers, who carefully note their comments. (In
1995 Fox began sponsoring X-File conventions in
attempts to create Star Trek-like longevity and
fan following.) The show's progress from
obscurity to cult favorite is in pointed contrast
to that of 1990-91's ill-starred Twin Peaks.
58
Websites like The David Duchovny Estrogen Brigade
(DDEB) and Gillian Anderson Testosterone Brigade
(GATB) promoted the shows stars as sex symbols.
Slash fan-fiction also coupled Mulder and Scully
(in the shows actual nine year run, the partners
never did more than kiss, and the series UST -
Unresolved Sexual Tension - was never relieved)
and even Mulder and Skinner. Fans did more than
write and talk about the series, of course
thanks to Foxs skillful vertical integration of
their franchise show, they would have the
opportunity to spend millions of dollars a year
on official books, novels, trading cards, coffee
mugs, T-shirts, DVDs, and action figures.
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Every time you pronounce it creatively dead,
it comes back to life like the ghouls that Mulder
and Scully have been investigating these eight
odd years. Every time you think the show has
fallen into irreparable self-parody, Chris Carter
has a marijuana-induced epiphany, rolls off his
chaise on some remote Hawaiian beach, and
videophones in an idea that shakes new life into
it.--Kinney (2002)
61
Memorable Episodes Humbug (2.20). Mulder and
Scully investigate a murder in a circus freak
show wintering in Florida. Written by Darin Morgan
62
Memorable Episodes Clyde Bruckmans Final
Repose (3.4). Mulder and Scully track a serial
killer with the help of a psychic (played by
Peter Boyle) able to predict how people will die.
Written by Darin Morgan
63
Memorable Episodes Jose Chungs From Outer
Space (3.20). A famous writer investigate a
Mulder and Scully investigation of an alien
abduction in the state of Washington for a book
of non-fiction science fiction. Written by Darin
Morgan
64
Memorable Episodes The Musings of a
Cigarette-Smoking Man (4.7). The life-story,
perhaps fictional, of the malevolent Cancer Man
(who appears to be Mulders real father),who may
have assassinated both JFK and Martin Luther King
and be friends with Saddam Hussein.
65
Memorable Episodes Small Potatoes (4.20). Five
unrelated women in a small town give birth to
babies with small tails. The prime suspect is a
man who can shape shift into whomever he
wants. Starring Darin Morgan
66
Memorable Episodes The Post-modern Prometheus
(5.5). A letter to Mulder from a woman who has
become twice pregnant through strange
circumstances, brings the agents to her small
town. There Mulder and Scully discover a mad
scientist who has been doing experiments with
humans and animals. Among these experiments they
discover a modern-day Frankenstein's monster, who
may possess the answers to their current
investigation.
67
Memorable Episodes Bad Blood (5.12). While
investigating bizarre exsanguinations in Texas,
Mulder kills a teenage boy whom he mistakes for a
vampire. Awaiting a meeting with Skinner, Mulder
and Scully attempt to get their stories
"straight" by relating to each other their
differing versions of what happened during their
investigation.
68
Memorable Episodes Triangle (6.3). Inspired by
Alfred Hitchcocks experiment in shooting without
cuts in Rope (1948).
69
Memorable Episodes The Unnatural (6.19).
Mulder uncovers a story involving a Negro
baseball player in the 1940s who played for a
minor league team in Roswell. When in a
photograph he sees the Alien Bounty Hunter it is
assumed that Josh Exley, the baseball player in
question, might just be alien himself.
70
Memorable Episodes X-Cops (7.12). Mulder and
Scully find themselves in the middle of an
episode of the Fox reality show Cops (1989 ) in
what becomes a kind of X-Files mockumentary.
71
Memorable Episodes Hollywood A.D. (7.19). The
partners become consultants on a movie version of
an X-File, in which comic Garry Shandling plays
Mulder and Tea Leoni (Duchovnys wife) does
Scully.
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73
The secret of life is to die at the right
time.--Friedrich Nietzsche The same might be
said of television series.
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