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Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders (Abnormal Psychology)

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Title: Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders (Abnormal Psychology)


1
Chapter 14 Psychological Disorders (Abnormal
Psychology)
2
Defining Abnormality
  • Defining abnormality is not simple, it appears to
    be more a matter of degree of behavioral change
    distress rather than the presence or absence of a
    behavioral change or distress
  • Some criterion seem helpful in defining
    abnormality
  • Behavior is outside of social norms (shouting at
    strangersshows what is normal is culturally
    dependent)
  • Inability to function (being unable to go to
    work due to alcohol abuse)
  • Personal Distress (trouble sleeping, worry all
    the time, thoughts of suicide)
  • Prolonged Suffering (depression that lasts
    months rather than days)

3
Normality-Abnormality Continuum
4
DSM IV
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM IV)
1952- First edition 1994- 4th edition 2000-
4th revised 2013- Planned release for 5th
edition
Five axis criteria for diagnostic classification
of psych. disorders Axis 1- Principal diagnosis
- 16 categories Axis 2- Personality or
developmental disorders Axis 3- Medical
conditions Axis 4- Recent sources of
stress Axis 5- Global Assessment of Functioning
(GAF)
5
Schizophrenic Disorders
  • Group of disorders marked by disturbances in
    thought patterns. These disorders can be
    accompanied by distortions in perception and
    abnormal emotional responses.
  • 1 of population in every culture
  • 30 resistant to drugs
  • Gradual vs. Sudden onset

6
Subtypes of Schizophrenia
  • Paranoid marked by delusion of persecution
    and/or grandeur, and frequent auditory
    hallucinations
  • Disorganized marked by inappropriate affect,
    disorganized speech
  • Catatonic marked by motor disturbances ranging
    from immobility to excessive, purposeless
    activity
  • Undifferentiated mixtures of symptoms from other
    subtypes

7
Potential Causes of Schizophrenia
  • Physiological Explanations
  • neurochemicals- excess dopamine
  • enlargement of the ventricles of the brain
    (genetics- there is a 46 concordance rate for
    identical twins with one twin suffering
    schizophrenia
  • Environmental Explanations
  • Stress- can precede the onset of schizophrenia
    and precede subsequent relapses
  • Unhealthy Family Dynamics- high expression of
    emotion and communication difficulties in a
    family
  • Date of birth- maybe flu season during time in
    womb? (see next slide)

8
Risk Month Born
9
Relatives of ppl with schizophrenia
10
Anxiety Disorders
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder chronic anxiety
    that is not caused by a specific stimulus
  • Panic Attacks recurrent attacks of anxiety not
    due to a specific event
  • Phobias chronic, irrational fear of a specific
    object or situation
  • agoraphobia (open spaces), social phobia
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder persistent
    obtrusive thoughts (obsessions) need to engage
    in unnecessary rituals (compulsions)
  • Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) after
    traumatic life event person has severe anxiety,
    helplessness, fear, flashbacks

11
Common Phobias
  • Less Common (but entertaining)phobias list

12
Some Potential Causes of Anxiety Disorders
  • Behavioral explanations Classically conditioned
    phobic responses
  • Neuro-chemical decreases in GABA activity and
    serotonin activity are associated with anxiety
    disorders
  • Cognitive people who suffer from anxiety
    disorders may chronically overestimate the
    severity of a perceived threat

13
Mood Disorders
  • Depressive Disorder persistent feelings of
    sadness and a loss of interest in finding
    pleasure (Major, dysthemic (two years ),
    post-partum, seasonal affective disorder)
  • Bipolar Disorder marked by chronic experience of
    manic and depressive episodes

14
Episodic Patterns in Mood Disorders
15
Some Potential Causes of Depression
  • Cognitive and Behavioral Mechanisms
  • Behavioral learned helplessness believe
    outcomes in their life are out of their control
    (external locus of control)
  • Cognitive negative self-talk is associated with
    depressive episodes
  • Physiological Mechanisms
  • Neurotransmitters decreased norepinephrine and
    serotonin is associated with depression
  • Genetics there is a 65 concordance rate between
    identical twins

16
Mood Disorders chart
17
Somatoform Disorders
  • Physiological issues without cause
  • Hypochondriasis excessive preoccupation with
    becoming ill
  • Conversion Disorder significant loss of function
    in one single organ system without a
    physiological cause

18
Dissociative Disorders
  • Dissociative Amnesia sudden loss of memory for
    personal information that is not due to normal
    forgetfulness
  • Dissociative Fugue a loss of memory and forming
    a new identity
  • Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) the
    coexistence of more than one personality in an
    individual
  • Depersonalization Feelings of unreality
    concerning the self and environment. Anxiety
    producing. Many young adults have felt this.

19
Personality Disorders- a few examples
  • Antisocial Personality Disorder (sociopath)
    marked by impulsive, callous, manipulative,
    aggressive, and irresponsible behavior that lacks
    conscience (often charming)
  • Narcissistic exaggerated feelings of self-worth
    and constant need for affirmation
  • Histrionic OVERLY emotional/seductive
  • Borderline irrational fear of abandonment, self
    injury
  • Avoidant Dependent
  • Schizotypical
  • Obsessive-Compulsive

20
Insanity Pleas
  • Does not know right from wrong
  • A disorder alone does not absolve responsibility
  • John Hinkley - President Reagan
  • Ted Kaczynski, Jeffrey Dahmer, Andrea Yates, Kip
    Kinkel- all found guilty by juries

21
Some Potential Causes of Somatoform Disorders
  • Personality Factors people with histrionic and
    neurotic personality traits seem to be more
    susceptible to the somatoform disorders
  • Behavioral Factors people who have previously
    received a lot of attention because of illness
    may begin to find reward in the somatoform
    disorders

22
Problems with DSM/disease model
  • Thomas Szasz- no such thing as mental ill
  • Rosenhan- empty, hollow, thud- 19 days
  • Labeling theory
  • Not easy to classify- crossover
  • Infers more understanding than actual
  • Everyday problems
  • Insurance

23
Suicide
  • White gt Black, Men gt Women (China), Woman
    attempts gt Men attempts
  • Spike for men after 65
  • Alcoholics and depression very high rate
  • Few who talk about it do it, but most who do it
    give clues ahead of time
  • Arizona over 1000 suicides last year- Mesa 60,
    Chandler 30

24
Suicide facts
  • Take all threats seriously
  • Most suicidal people are ambivalent and want help
  • Asking a person can minimize anxiety and act as a
    deterrent
  • An attempter is often upset or depressed

25
Clues and Warning Signs
  • Change in interest or mood (including extremely
    happy or peaceful.
  • Change in lifestyle, eating, sleeping
  • Change in perception of the world
  • Change in attitude about personal property-
    giving away prized possessions

26
Teen Sex and Depression
  • 2800 14 to 17 year-olds
  • 25 of sexually active girls feel depressed all,
    most, or a lot of the time vs 8
  • 14 of sexually active girls have attempted
    suicide vs 5
  • 6 of sexually active boys vs less than 1
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