A.P. Final Review Part III - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – A.P. Final Review Part III PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 76efd0-ZGM1M



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

A.P. Final Review Part III

Description:

A.P. Final Review Part III Progressives through World War II – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:91
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 130
Provided by: wikis1326
Category:
Tags: iii | final | part | populist | review

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: A.P. Final Review Part III


1
A.P. Final ReviewPart III
  • Progressives through World War II

2
Progressive Movement
  • Idea return control of the government to the
    people, restore economic opportunities, and
    correct injustices in American life
  • Roots????
  • Goals
  • Protect social welfare
  • Promote moral improvement
  • Create economic reform
  • Foster efficiency
  • Political reform

3
Progressive MovementGOALS
  • Protecting social welfare
  • Settlement houses, soup kitchens, YMCA
  • Jacob Riis
  • Promoting moral reform
  • Prohibition
  • Creating economic reform
  • Muckrakers journalists who wrote about corrupt
    business and politics
  • Upton Sinclair
  • Fostering efficiency
  • Scientific management
  • Assembly line production
  • 5. Election reform

4
Election Reforms
  • Initiative a bill originated by citizens (not
    lawmakers) placed on the ballot
  • Referendum vote on an initiative
  • Recall ability of voters to remove public
    officials by forcing them to face election sooner
    than scheduled
  • 17th Amendment direct election of Senators (not
    state legislatures)

5
Teddy Roosevelts Square Deal
  • Federal arbitration 1902 coal strike threatens
    supply
  • Government creates a commission to work out a
    compromise (a new precedent)
  • Forced arbitration!!!
  • Trust-busting used Sherman Antitrust Act to sue
    companies believed to have a monopoly
  • Regulation
  • Meat inspection act strict guidelines for meat
    processing
  • Food and Drug act halt sale of contaminated
    foods and medicines and called for truth in
    labeling
  • Conservation
  • Set aside over 200 million acres as National
    Parks, Forests and Preserves
  • Civil Rights no improvement!!!!!

6
TR Legacy
  • Contributions
  • Conservation
  • Enlarged power and prestige of presidency
  • Compromise diplomacy (with a BIG stick)
  • Public opinion as a political weapon
  • Public awareness of global community

7
Good Old Will Taft
  • Father of Dollar Diplomacy
  • Increase US investment in strategic areas
  • Trustbuster
  • 2x TR
  • Standard Oil
  • US Steel (oops)

8
Bad Old Will Taft
  • Payne-Aldrich Bill
  • Intended to reduce tariffs instead raises tariffs
  • Breaks campaign promise and splits Republican
    Party
  • Ballinger-Pinchot Dispute
  • Open public lands to corporate development

9
1912 Election GOP Divided by Bull MooseEquals
Democratic Victory!
10
1912 Election
  • Labeled as the Election that changed the century
  • Why?
  • Choice of political and economic philosophies
  • Democratic Laissez faire economics and social
    policy
  • Republican socially conservative, limited
    progressive reforms
  • Progressive activist welfare state
  • Winner?
  • Progressive reforms for Americans!!!

11
Dr. Wilson
  • Jeffersonian
  • Moral wall?
  • Goals
  • Tariffs
  • Underwood Bill
  • Banks
  • Federal Reserve Act
  • Trusts
  • FTC
  • Clayton-Anti Trust Act

12
Income Tax / Federal Reserve System
  • 16th Amendment graduated tax on income
  • Started at 1 and rose to 6
  • Today 20 and up
  • Federal Reserve System
  • US divided into 12 districts
  • Each district has a federal reserve bank
  • Issue currency, loan money to banks

13
Wilsons Moral Diplomacy
  • The U. S. shouldbe the conscienceof the world.
  • Spread democracy.
  • Promote peace.
  • Condemn colonialism.

14
America Becomes a World Power
15
American Imperialism
  • Factors
  • Economic competition between nations
  • Political and military competition
  • Belief in racial and cultural superiority
  • Actions
  • Hawaii
  • Cuba
  • Puerto Rico

16
Hawaii
  • Sugar, Sugar, Sugar
  • 75 of wealth
  • No duty (tax) on sugar sold to U.S.
  • Most plantation owners from U.S.
  • Political issues
  • Only land owners can vote
  • U.S. treaty for Pearl Harbor
  • Change in Hawaiis ruler
  • Liliuokalani deposed with help from U.S.
    military
  • President Cleveland refuses to recognize as a
    territory unless Hawaiians want it
  • President McKinley proclaims Hawaii a U.S.
    territory

17
CUBA
  • Cuban Revolution 1895
  • U.S. Split
  • Support Spain to protect American business
    interests
  • Support Cuban rebels to promote liberty
  • Yellow journalism reporting that exaggerates
    the news to lure new readers
  • Stirs support for rebels
  • Creates news
  • Teller amendment promises Cuban independence if
    US assists

18
Yellow Journalism Jingoism
Joseph Pulitzer
Hearst to Frederick Remington You furnish
the pictures, and Ill furnish the war!
William Randolph Hearst
19
De Lôme Letter
  • Dupuy de Lôme, SpanishAmbassador to the U.S.
  • Criticized PresidentMcKinley as weak and
    abidder for the admirationof the crowd,
    besidesbeing a would-be politicianwho tries to
    leave a dooropen behind himself whilekeeping on
    good termswith the jingoes of hisparty.

20
Remember the Maineand to Hell with Spain!
Funeral for Maine victims in Havana
21
The Treaty of Paris 1898
  • Cuba was freed from Spanish rule.
  • Spain gave up Puerto Rico and the island ofGuam.
  • The U. S. paid Spain20 mil. for
    thePhilippines.
  • The U. S. becomesan imperial power!

22
American Impacts
  • 350-400 Battle Deaths
  • 2000-5000 Death by Disease
  • Typhoid, Malaria, etc.
  • Bad beef
  • Unprepared
  • Clothing, training, weapons, leadership
  • Strengths
  • Numbers, Navy

23
The American Anti-Imperialist
League
  • Founded in 1899.
  • Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, WilliamJames, and
    WilliamJennings Bryan amongthe leaders.
  • Campaigned against the annexation of
    thePhilippines and otheracts of imperialism.

24
Cuban Independence?
Senator Orville Platt
Platt Amendment (1903) 1. Cuba was not to enter
into any agreements with foreign powers that
would endanger its independence. 2. The U.S.
could intervene in Cuban affairs if
necessary to maintain an efficient, independent
govt. 3. Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the
U.S. for naval and coaling station. 4. Cuba
must not build up an excessive public debt.
25
Puerto Rico
  • 1900 - Foraker Act Limited degree of popular
    government
  • 1901-1903 ? the Insular Cases Constitution does
    not fully apply to territories
  • 1917 Jones Act
  • U.S. Citizenship for Puerto Ricans

26
Emilio Aguinaldo
  • Leader of the FilipinoUprising.
  • July 4, 1946Philippine independence

27
The Boxer Rebellion 1900
  • The Peaceful Harmonious Fists.
  • 55 Days at Peking.

28
The Open Door Policy
  • Secretary John Hay.
  • Give all nations equalaccess to trade in China.
  • Guaranteed that China would NOT be taken over by
    any one foreign power.

29
Panama The Kings Crown
  • 1850 ? Clayton-BulwerTreaty (US not allowed to
    get exclusive control over Panama route)
  • 1901 ? Hay-PaunceforteTreaty (US free to build
    and fortify a canal)
  • Panama revolution?
  • 1903 ? Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty. (US purchases
    rights from French)

30
The Roosevelt Corollary to the
Monroe Doctrine 1905
Chronic wrongdoing may in America, as elsewhere,
ultimately require intervention by some civilized
nation, and in the Western Hemisphere the
adherence of the United States to the Monroe
Doctrine may force the United States, however
reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing
or impotence, to the exercise of an international
police power .
31
Speak Softly,But Carry a Big Stick!
32
Treaty of Portsmouth 1905
Nobel Peace Prize for Teddy
33
Yellow Peril
  • Post Russo-Japanese War
  • Laborers flock to California
  • Racial tensions
  • School discrimination
  • Gentlemens Agreement
  • Japan agrees to limit (eliminate?) laborers
    headed to California

34
The Great White Fleet 1907
35
The Mexican Revolution 1910s
  • Victoriano Huerta seizes control of Mexico
  • Venustiano Carranza, Pancho Villa, Emiliano
    Zapata, and Alvaro Obregon fought against
    Huerta.
  • The U.S. also got involved by occupying Veracruz
    and Huerta fled the country.
  • Eventually Carranza would gain power in Mexico.
  • Pancho Villa seizes power pursued by
    Blackjack Pershing until recalled for WWI

36
World War I - Causes
37
1. The Alliance System
Triple Entente
Triple Alliance
38
The Major Players 1914-17
Allied Powers
Central Powers
Nicholas II Rus
Wilhelm II Ger
George V Br
Victor Emmanuel II It
Enver PashaTurkey
Pres. Poincare Fr
Franz Josef A-H
39
Europe in 1914
40
2. Militarism Arms Race
1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures
France 10
Britain 13
Russia 39
Germany 73


41
3. Economic Imperial Rivalries
42
4. Aggressive Nationalism
43
Pan-Slavism The Balkans, 1914
ThePowder Kegof Europe
44
The Assassination Sarajevo
45
Whos To Blame?
46
Almost 40 Million Activated 1914-18
47
Blood Money or Capitalism?
  • Loans
  • Allies (4B by 1916)
  • Trade with Allies
  • War goods
  • Food
  • Blockades
  • British
  • German
  • Enforced by U-Boat

48
The Sinking of the Lusitania
49
Election of 1916
Charles Evans Hughes Republican Charles Evasive
Hughes Dove-Hawk
Woodrow Wilson Democrat He Kept Us Out of War
50
The Zimmerman Telegram
Wilson proposes Peace without Victory German
response Unlimited Submarine warfare in the
war zone!!! Secret proposal to Mexico
51
Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats
Before the US Enters the WAR
After the US Enters the WAR
52
Wilsons Fourteen Points
  • Moral leader of the Allied Cause
  • KEY POINTS
  • Abolish secret treaties
  • Freedom of the seas
  • End of economic sanctions
  • Reduction in arms
  • Self-determination for colonies
  • League of Nations (collective security)

53
1917 Selective Service Act
  • 24,000,000 men registered for the draft by the
    end of 1918.
  • 4,800,000 men served in WW1 (2,000,000 saw
    active combat).
  • 400,000 African-Americansserved in segregated
    units.
  • 15,000 Native-Americans served as scouts,
    messengers, and snipers in non-segregated units.

54
Government Excess Threats to the Civil
Liberties of Americans
1. Espionage Act 1917 - forbade actions
that obstructed recruitment or
efforts to promote insubordination in the
military. - ordered the Postmaster General
to remove Leftist materials from the
mail. - fines of up to 10,000 and/or
up to 20 years in prison.
55
Government Excess Threats to the Civil
Liberties of Americans
2. Sedition Act 1918 - it was a crime to
speak against the purchase of war bonds or
willfully utter, print, write or publish any
disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive
language about this form of US Govt., the US
Constitution, or the US armed forces or to
willfully urge, incite, or advocate any
curtailment of production of things
necessary or essential to the prosecution of
the warwith intent of such curtailment to
cripple or hinder, the US in the prosecution
of the war.
56
Government Excess Threats to the Civil
Liberties of Americans
3. Schenck v. US 1919 - in ordinary times the
mailing of the leaflets would have been
protected by the 1st Amendment. - BUT,
every act of speech must be judged acc. to
the circumstances in which it was spoken.
-The most stringent protection of free
speech would not protect a man in falsely
shouting fire in a theater and causing a
panic. Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes - If an
act of speech posed a clear and present
danger, then Congress had the power to
restrain such speech.
57
Council of National Defense
  • War Industries Board Bernard Baruch
  • Food Administration Herbert Hoover
  • Railroad Administration William McAdoo
  • National War Labor Board W. H.Taft
    Frank P. Walsh

58
Results of This New Organization of the Economy
during WWI
  1. Unemployment virtually disappeared.
  2. Expansion of big government.
  3. Excessive govt. regulations in eco.
  4. Some gross mismanagement ? overlapping
    jurisdictions.
  5. Close cooperation between public and private
    sectors.
  6. Unprecedented opportunities for disadvantaged
    groups.

59
Labor Issues vs. Patriotism
  • Post-war labor unrest
  • Coal Miners Strike of 1919.
  • Steel Strike of 1919.
  • Boston Police Strike of 1919.

60
Opportunities for African-Americans in WW1
  • Great Migration. 1916 1919 ? 70,000
  • War industries work.
  • Enlistment in segregated units.

61
Increased Racial Tension
  • African-Americans used as strike breakers
  • Great Migration expands urban issues
  • Overcrowding
  • Economic competition
  • Segregation
  • Race riots / lynching increase

62
Role of Women
  • Patriotism and opportunity lead to female factory
    workers and farmers
  • Wilson endorses (finally) suffrage as a vital
    necessity for the war effort
  • Economic, social, and political strength

63
Wilson Fights for Peace
  • Early 1918 German military takes over the German
    government
  • German Kaiser began peace negotiations
  • German army/navy mutiny
  • Germany surrenders 11/11/1918 _at_ 1100 a.m.
  • Last allied offensive 900 a.m.
  • Last deaths _at_ 1059 a.m.
  • Wilson travels to Paris for negotiations
  • No Republicans invited

64
Treaty of Versailles
  • Britain and France wanted harsh conditions to
    insure Germany would not be a threat again
  • Conditions
  • Germany accepts blame for the War
  • Germany has to pay 132 billion in reparations
  • Alsace-Lorraine returned to France
  • German military drastically reduced
  • Colonies become protectorates of Allies
  • Nine new nations created Czechoslovakia,
    Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Poland, Lithuania,
    Estonia, Latvia, and Finland

65
Weaknesses of the Treaty
  • Humiliates Germany
  • Ignores Russia
  • Separate peace with Germany 1917
  • Russian Revolution
  • Reassigns colonies not self-determination or
    freedom

66
Domestic / Political Issues
  • Isolationists
  • Henry Cabot Lodge
  • Led opposition of moral pledge Article 10 (US
    OBLIGATED to help w/o Congress)
  • Successfully delayed treaty hearings
  • Wilson inflexible
  • Who kills the treaty?

67
Consequences of the War
  • Human 10 million dead, 25 million injured
  • Economic - 330 billion, destruction of European
    economy
  • Physical destruction of property
  • Political End of German, Austrian, Russian, and
    Ottoman Empires
  • Creation of weak states
  • Establishment of communism
  • Psychological deepens and expands nationalism,
    expands pessimistic view of humanity

68
US Consequences of WWI
  • 120,000 dead 300,000 injured
  • Accelerates Americas emergence as worlds
    greatest industrial leader
  • Relocates American population to urban areas
  • Increases anti-immigrant and anti-radical
    sentiments

69
Post-War America
  • Roaring Twenties Depressing Thirties

70
Post-War America
  • Renewed isolationism
  • WHY?
  • Increased suspicion of foreign-born people
  • WHY?
  • Increased political conservatism
  • Turning away from progressive reforms

71
The Red Scare
  • Attorney General, A. Mitchell Palmer (The Case
    Against the Reds)
  • Palmer Raids 1920
  • Sacco Vanzetti Trial
  • Union membership communism
  • Decline in Union Membership
  • Protect America from foreign ideas and people

72
Return of the Klan
  • By 1924 membership 4.5 million
  • Beliefs
  • Keep blacks in their place
  • Drive Catholics, Jews, and foreign-born out of
    the country
  • Enforce prohibition
  • Oppose labor unions

73
Immigration Act of 1924
  • AKA the National Origins Act, Asian Exclusion Act
    or the Johnson-Reed Act
  • Limited the number of immigrants who could be
    admitted from any country to 2 of the number of
    people from that country who were already living
    in the United States in 1890.
  • Excluded immigration to the US of Asian
    laborers,1 specifically Chinese immigrants 2
    and had the effect of preventing Japanese
    Americans from legally owning land.
  • The law was aimed at further restricting the
    Southern and Eastern Europeans who had begun to
    enter the country in large numbers beginning in
    the 1890s, as well as East Asians and Asian
    Indians, who were prohibited from immigrating
    entirely.
  • It set no limits on immigration from Latin
    America.

74
Immigration Changes
Red North/West Europe Blue
South/East Europe
75
The Prohibition Experiment1920-1933
  • Causes
  • Various religious groups thought alcohol was
    sinful
  • Need to protect the publics health
  • Alcohol leads to crime, domestic abuse, and job
    issues
  • Nativism against foreign born brewers and
    immigrants that used alcohol
  • Effects
  • Widespread disregard for the law
  • Increased smuggling and bootlegging
  • New source of criminal income
  • Birth of organized crime

76
Science vs. Religion
  • Fundamentalism literal interpretation of the
    Bible
  • Adam Eve or a Monkey?
  • Evolution theory
  • Creation theory
  • The Scopes Trial
  • Bryan vs. Darrow

77
Business of America
  • Impact of the Automobile
  • Paved roads
  • Urban sprawl
  • Independence and economic revolution
  • Airplanes
  • Electric Conveniences
  • Radios (75), washing machine (150), sewing
    machine (60)
  • Advertising, credit, and consumer choices

78
The Twenties Woman
  • Fashion
  • What do clothing styles reflect?
  • Actions
  • Smoking, dancing, and drinking
  • Relationships
  • Marriage
  • Double standard
  • Birth Control Margaret Sanger
  • Sigmund Freud Repression is unhealthy?
  • Work
  • 10 million women workers (24 of the total)

79
African-Americans
  • Great Migration
  • By the end of the 1920s almost five million
    African-Americans lived in cities (40)
  • Huge numbers of race riots (25 in 1919)
  • Goals NAACP
  • Protest racial violence
  • Promote legislation to protect African-American
    rights

80
Marcus Garvey
  • Founded Universal Negro Improvement Association
  • Promote African-American businesses
  • Support a Back to Africa movement
  • Black Star Line
  • Colonize a nation
  • Convicted of mail fraud and jailed
  • Legacy black pride, economic independence and
    reverence for Africa

81
Harlem Renaissance
  • Literary and artistic movement celebrating
    African-American culture
  • Why Harlem?
  • Mix of southerners, West Indies, Cuba, Puerto
    Rico, and Haiti
  • Worlds largest black urban community
  • Key figures
  • Claude McKay militant poet
  • Langston Hughes poet
  • Louis Armstrong Jazz musician
  • Duke Ellington Jazz musician

82
Isolationism in the New World
  • Washington Conference
  • Reduce Naval Arms race
  • Limit base building in Far East
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact
  • International agreement against using war as an
    instrument of national policy
  • Small problem
  • No way to enforce
  • No provision for military or economic sanctions
    against any nation that violated the pact

83
Double Trouble
  • Economic isolationism Tariff Walls
  • Thirty two increases in six years
  • Pressures Europe to respond in kind
  • Future outcomes?
  • Teapot Dome (or the Return of Grant)
  • Secretary of the Interior Fall leases oil lands
    to private business in exchange for 400k (loans)

84
Debt, Debt, and more Debt
  • Creditor status
  • 16 B owed how to collect?
  • Allies issues
  • Tariffs reduce sales which reduce payments
  • Reparations from Germany
  • French occupation of the Ruhr Valley
  • Cripples economy hyperinflation
  • Dawes Plan

85
Dawes Plan
  • Main points of The Dawes Plan were
  • The Ruhr area was to be evacuated by Allied
    occupation troops.
  • Reparation payments would begin at 1 billion
    marks for the first year and should rise over a
    period of four years to 2.5 billion marks per
    year.
  • 3. Foreign loans (primarily from the United
    States) would be made available to Germany.
  • Goal Repayment of debts by Allies to US (BIG
    CIRCLE)

86
Hoovers Early Actions
  • Help the Farmers (McNary-Haugen)
  • Buy surplus boost prices
  • Problems with this plan?
  • Hawley-Smoot Tariff
  • Highest protective tariff in peacetime
  • Decreases foreign purchases
  • Raises foreign tariffs
  • Fuels anti-American attitudes

87
The Stock Market Crash The Final Straw!!!
  • Crash 10/29/29 (16 million shares traded)
  • By mid-November investors lost 30 Billion
  • By end of December investors lost 10 Billion
    more..

88
Short Term Effects 1929-33
  • Bank Failures
  • By 1933, 6000 banks closed (25 of all banks)
  • 9 million individual savings accounts lost
  • Manufacturing output cut in half
  • 85,000 businesses went bankrupt
  • Unemployment
  • 1929 3 of eligible workers unemployed
  • 1933 25 of eligible workers unemployed
  • Remaining workers take reduced pay and hours

89
Impacts Urban Areas
  • Widespread homelessness
  • Creation of shantytowns (Hoovervilles)
  • Begging, soup kitchens, bread lines
  • Destruction of families
  • Riding the rails gt 2 million men
  • Increased racial tensions
  • Competition for employment

90
Impacts in Rural Areas
  • Huge numbers of farm foreclosures (over 400,000
    between 1929-1932)
  • Environment issues
  • Overproduction destroys soil
  • Extreme drought creates Dust Bowl
  • Migrant families
  • Farmers move West for work

91
President Hoovers Reactions
  • Any lack of confidence in the economic
    future..is foolish
  • Remain optimistic!
  • Rugged individualism succeed through effort
  • Limited government involvement in economy
  • Federal building projects Boulder Dam
  • Federal Farm Board help raise farm prices
  • Reconstruction Finance Corp loan money to
    banks, industries, etc. (up to 2 billion)

92
The Bonus Army
  • WWI veterans scheduled to receive a bonus in
    1945 (about 500 each)
  • 20,000 march to Washington in 1932
  • WE WANT OUR BONUS NOW!!!!
  • Created a shantytown outside of Washington
  • Hoover orders them to leave (most obey)
  • 2000 stay and are removed by US Army with force
    (gas and bullets)
  • Nation is shocked!

93
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
  • Promised A New Deal for the American People
  • Three goals
  • Relief for the needy
  • Economic recovery
  • Financial reform
  • Used radio broadcasts (fireside chats) to explain
    goals to the people

94
Financial Reform
  • Emergency Banking Relief Act of 1933
  • Close all banks (bank holiday)
  • Only financially secure banks reopened
  • Support stable banks with Federal Treasury (print
    more money)
  • Glass-Steagall Banking Act of 1933 provide
    federal insurance for individual accounts (FDIC)
  • Call in the gold supply
  • Temporarily take US off gold standard
  • Treasury buy gold at market price

95
Relief for the Needy
  • Jobs
  • Civilian Conservation Corp (CCC) provided jobs
    for young men building roads, parks, and planting
    trees
  • Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA)
    payments to states for direct relief or wages for
    work projects
  • Civil Works Administration (CWA) provided
    construction and teaching jobs short term
  • Works Progress Administration (WPA) created
    jobs for 8 million people in everything from
    construction to music teachers

96
More Relief for the Needy
  • Direct Relief
  • Federal Housing Administration government loans
    for home mortgages
  • Agricultural Adjustment Act raise prices by
    lowering production and loans to meet mortgages

97
Critics
  • Huey Long (Kingfish)
  • Share the Wealth Program
  • Tax Rich
  • 5000 per family initially
  • 2000 minimum annual income
  • Government support for pensions, education, and
    veterans benefits

FDR labels him as one of the two most dangerous
men in America!
98
More Critics
  • The great betrayer and liar, Franklin D.
    Roosevelt, who promised to drive the money
    changers from the temple, had succeeded only in
    driving the farmers from their homesteads and the
    citizens from their homes in the cities. . . I
    ask you to purge the man who claims to be a
    Democrat, from the Democratic Party, and I mean
    Franklin Double-Crossing Roosevelt."

Father Coughlin 1/3 of Americans listened to his
weekly radio broadcasts
Economic Populist with an Anti-Semitic twist
99
More Critics
Dr. Francis Townsend
200 per month per Senior Citizen
100
Economic Reform
  • National Recovery Act promote fair business
    practices
  • Set competitive prices
  • Establish work standards for hours and child
    labor
  • Provide workers with the right to unionize and
    conduct collective bargaining
  • Ruled unconstitutional (unanimously) by Supreme
    Court Sick Chicken Decision

101
Sick Chickens
  • Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States (1935)
  • Schecter Poultry was alleged to have sold unfit
    chicken to a butcher. Schecter and the butcher
    are both based in Brooklyn New York. Schecter did
    no out of state business.
  • Schecter Poultry Co. was charged by the federal
    government which argued that under the National
    Industrial Recovery Act Schecter Poultry can be
    regulated by the federal government which under
    the NRA set up codes in cooperation with various
    industries.
  • Schecter Poultry argued that the NIRA was
    unconstitutional because the federal government
    had no right to regulate intrastate trade.
  • The Supreme Court citing Gibbons v Ogden as the
    precedent reversed the lower courts decision in
    Schecter and struck down the NIRA as
    unconstitutional. The Supreme Court thus said
    reaffirmed the fact that the federal government
    may not regulate intrastate trade only interstate
    trade.

102
More Programs
  • Public Works Administration (PWA) provided money
    to the states for school and public building
    construction
  • Agricultural Adjustment Act raise prices by
    lowering production
  • Subsidized scarcity or organized waste
  • Creates more unemployment
  • Taxing regulations ruled unconstitutional

103
Dust Bowl
  • Creates massive relocation of Plains farmers to
    West Coast
  • Migrant farmers
  • Regional protection from Okies

104
Financial Reform
  • Federal Securities Act requires companies to
  • Provide complete factual financial information
    about the company
  • Created rules for insider information

3/10/04 - Stewart convicted on all charges
105
Tennessee Valley Authority
  • Massive Project intended to
  • Control flooding (20 dams)
  • Generate electricity
  • Stimulate impoverished region
  • Create jobs

106
SSA 1935
  • Social Security Act provided
  • Retirement insurance supplemental insurance for
    retirees 65 or older
  • Unemployment compensation
  • Aid to families with children and the disabled
  • Financed by a payroll tax on employers and
    employees

107
Labor Reforms
  • National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act)
  • protects workers from unfair labor practices
  • reaffirms the right to organize and bargain
    collectively
  • Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO)
  • John L. Lewis forms union of unskilled labor
  • Successful with GM, USS
  • Fair Labor Standards Act set modern labor rules
    on hours, ages, and minimum wages

108
1936 Election Trivia
  • FDR won 46 of 48 states
  • 98.5 of Electoral Votes (two party record)
  • FDR won almost 61 of popular vote (record at
    that time)
  • George Gallup accurately predicated the winner
    using a scientific poll for the first time
  • FDR believes the landslide equates to complete
    public support for New Deal

109
The Issue with the Court
  • "A part of the problem of obtaining a sufficient
    number of judges to dispose of cases is the
    capacity of the judges themselves. This brings
    forward the question of aged or infirm judges--a
    subject of delicacy and yet one which requires
    frank discussion. In exceptional cases, of
    course, judges, like other men, retain to an
    advanced age full mental and physical vigor.
    Those not so fortunate are often unable to
    perceive their own infirmities. . . A lower
    mental or physical vigor leads men to avoid an
    examination of complicated and changed
    conditions. Little by little, new facts become
    blurred through old glasses fitted, as it were,
    for the needs of another generation older men,
    assuming that the scene is the same as it was in
    the past, cease to explore or inquire into the
    present or the future."
  • FDR note to Congress proposing legislation to
    allow the Executive to add judges to courts where
    sitting judges were 70 or older and refused to
    retire

110
The Publics View
After 6 months of debate, Congress voted
against changing the Constitution. However, most
Court decisions after the debate supported New
Deal legislation.
111
Keynesian Economics 1,2,3
  • Modern economies are driven by demand for goods
    and services. When demand is high, the economy is
    healthy. When demand drops, the economy goes into
    recession.
  • When an economy goes into recession, it might
    recover by itself, but it might not. Sometimes
    demand needs to be stimulated.
  • There are three segments of the economy that
    drive demand, and each responds to different
    stimuli
  • Consumers. For the most part, consumers simply
    spend what they earn, so there's not much that
    can be done to stimulate consumer demand (though
    this has changed since 1936 see below for more
    details).
  • Business. Spending by businesses can be
    stimulated by lowering interest rates so that
    loans for capital equipment are cheaper. This is
    the first line of attack during a downturn.
  • Government. If that's not enough, government can
    pick up the slack by running deficits and buying
    more goods and services itself. This is the
    second line of attack.

112
More on Keynesian Economics
  • Of course, the opposite is also true if the
    economy is overheating, you can cool it down by
    raising interest rates or running a budget
    surplus. The basic idea is simply that aggregate
    demand drives the economy, so the goal of fiscal
    policy should be to manage demand in order to
    achieve sustainable long term growth rates.

113
(No Transcript)
114
National Debt
  • Debt doubles from 19.5 B to 40.4 B in eight
    years!
  • Lots of critics
  • Brain trust commies
  • Pro Jewish
  • Handout state

115
Success or Failure?
No end to the Depression but what did it
accomplish?
116
Long Term Impacts of the New Deal
  • Deficit spending
  • Expanding governments role in the economy
  • Protection of workers rights
  • Banking and Finance Reform
  • Social Security
  • Environmental protection

117
End of the Depression?
  • Although the New Deal programs relieved the
    nations suffering and provided hope for the
    American people..
  • The massive spending for equipment and supplies
    for WWII truly ended the Great Depression!!!

118
Domestic Focus
  • London Economic Conference 1933
  • Attempt to develop a coordinated attack on the
    Great Depression
  • Stabilize currencies and exchange rates
  • Revive global trade
  • US chooses to not participate
  • Currency agreements would limit FDRs financial
    recovery plans
  • Impacts of US non attendance?

119
Foreign Policy Shifts
  • Expensive imperialist policy
  • Release Philippines (1946)
  • Recognize Soviet Union
  • Why?
  • Trade and balance of power
  • Good Neighbor Policy
  • Abandon cousin Teddys corollary (no armed
    intervention in Latin America)
  • Reciprocal Trade Agreements
  • Reduce tariffs to increase free trade
  • Reversed tariffprosperity trend
  • Improved foreign relations

120
Rise of the Dictators
  • Causes
  • Harsh treaty conditions
  • Failed democracies
  • Worldwide economic crisis
  • Impacts
  • Stalin Soviet Union
  • Mussolini Italy
  • Hitler - Germany

121
U. S. Neutrality Acts1934, 1935, 1937, 1939
122
U.S. Isolation or Intervention?
  • League of Nations failure
  • Isolationism 70 of Americans felt involvement
    in WWI was a mistake
  • Neutrality Acts
  • No sale or loans to nations at war
  • No sale or loans to nations undergoing civil war
  • Quarantine Speech
  • Roosevelt urges 90 who want to live in peace to
    isolate 10 who threaten a breakdown of
    international law and order

123
Appeasement The Munich Agreement, 1938
British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain
Now we have peace in our time! Herr Hitler is a
man we can do business with.
124
The Nazi-SovietNon-Aggression Pact, 1939
Foreign Ministers von Ribbentrop Molotov
125
Poland Attacked Sept. 1, 1939
9/3/39 Britain France Declare WAR!!
Blitzkrieg Lightening War
126
America-First Committee
Charles Lindbergh
127
U. S. Lend-Lease Act,1941
Great Britain.........................31
billionSoviet Union...........................11
billionFrance...................................
... 3 billionChina..............................
.........1.5 billionOther European..............
...500 millionSouth America...................4
00 millionThe amount totaled 48,601,365,000
128
The Atlantic Charter
  • Roosevelt and Churchill sign treaty of friendship
    in August 1941.
  • Solidifies alliance.
  • Fashioned after Wilsons 14 Points.
  • Calls for League of Nations type organization.

129
Why Attack Pearl Harbor?
  • US Embargo on Japan
  • No gasoline, oil, lubricants
  • Freeze Japanese assets in American banks
  • US Demands (to end embargo and restore trade)
  • No further aggression end alliance with Germany
  • Leave China and Indonesia
  • US Beliefs
  • Japan not prepared or strong enough to attack
  • War only if attacked!
About PowerShow.com