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The Middle Ages

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The Middle Ages Europe after the Fall of the Roman Empire The Collapse of Trade and Towns Warfare disrupted trade. Towns and Cities declined Without the empire ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Middle Ages


1
The Middle Ages
2
Europe after the Fall of the Roman Empire
3
The Collapse of Trade and Towns
  • Warfare disrupted trade.
  • Towns and Cities declined Without the empire,
    no need for cities as centers of administration.
  • City dwellers moved back to the countryside,
    western Europe became very rural as the
    population shifted from urban to rural.

4
Loss of Literacy
  • The barbarians who invaded the Germanic Kingdom
    were illiterate
  • Learning declined as people moved out of the
    cities
  • By the 600s priests and clergy were the only
    Europeans who were literate

5
Loss of a Common Language
  • Latin declined after the Empire collapsed.
  • Formation of the Romance Languages different
    dialects of Latin formed (combo of Latin and
    languages of the Germanic tribes)
  • By the 800s French, Spanish, Italian and other
    Romance languages had evolved

6
The Concept of Government Changes
  • Germanic kingdoms replaced Roman provinces
    borders were constantly shifting
  • Family ties and personal loyalties replaced
    public government and public law.
  • Made orderly government for large areas difficult

7
Alliance Between the Church and the Franks
  • Clovis Frankish king, converted to Christianity
    in the 490s.
  • His conversion created an alliance between the
    Franks and the Church that would last for
    centuries.
  • By 600 Roman Catholic church had converted many
    Germanic tribes to Christianity.

8
Benedict and the Benedictine Rule
  • Benedict
  • Italian Monk in the 500s who developed a strict
    set of rules for monastic life called the
    BENEDICTINE RULE
  • Established a model for religious communities
    called monasteries for monks and convents for nuns
  • THE BENEDICTINE RULE
  • Must vow to stay for life
  • Spend 7 hours a day in manual labor
  • Two hours daily devoted to reading the Bible
  • Pray and worship 8 times daily
  • Meals should be limited with no red meat allowed

9
Role of Monasteries and Convents
  • Stable communities in a time of chaos in Europe
  • Well governed because they followed an orderly
    written body of rules
  • Most educated communities operated schools,
    libraries and copied books
  • Monasteries preserved a large part of Romes
    intellectual heritage with illuminated
    manuscripts.

10
Pope Gregory I
  • Became Pope in 590. Expanded the power of the
    Pope
  • Made the Papacy a political office as well as
    religious power.
  • Gregorys palace became the center of Roman
    government
  • Used church revenues to raise armies, repair
    roads, and relieve the poor Pope acted as mayor
    of Rome
  • Sent missionaries to England to spread
    Christianity among the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms
  • Ignored political divisions between kingdoms
    had a vision of Christendom A Christian kingdom
    ruled by the Pope.

11
The Frankish Kingdoms and Charles (the Hammer)
Martel
  • Frankish Mayor of the Palace (Major Domo)
  • Held the real power of the Frankish Kingdom
  • Commanded Frankish Army
  • In 732 Charles the Hammer Martel met and defeated
    the Moors (Muslims) in the Battle of Tours in
    France.
  • This saved Europe from further Muslim invasion
    and protected Christianity and the Church.

12
Pepin and Establishment of the Carolingian Dynasty
  • Succeeded his father Charles Martel as Mayor of
    the Palace.
  • He defeated the Lombards who were threatening
    Italy and the Church.
  • He gave the land of the Lombards to the Church.
    This became the Papal States.
  • Appointed by the Pope as King of the Franks.
  • Pepin established the Carolingian dynasty.

13
Charlemagne (Charles the Great)
14
Charlemagne (Charles the Great)
  • Succeeded his father Pepin as King.
  • Considered the greatest of medieval kings.
  • United all Frankish lands under his rule.
  • His empire was larger than any since the Roman
    Empire.
  • Divided his land into counties administered by
    counts.

15
Charlemagnes Empire
16
Charlemagne (Charles the Great)
  • Greatly interested in learning and started
    schools to bring literacy back to Europe.
  • Crowned Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire on
    Christmas Day in 800.
  • His son Louis the Pious inherited the Empire.
    After he died his kingdom split among his three
    sons (Charlemagnes grandsons)
  • Lothair Central (Italy, Switzerland)
  • Charles the Bald West (France)
  • Louis the German East (Germany)
  • They fought each other and in 843 signed the
    Treaty of Verdun dividing the empire.

17
Division of the Frankish Empire Treaty of Verdun
843
  • After the death of the three brothers the
    Carolingian kings lost power and central
    authority broke down.
  • A new system of governing and landowning called
    Feudalism emerged

18
The Holy Roman Empire
19
Europe in the 1300s
20
Growth of England and France
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