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UNIT B: Human Body Systems

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Title: UNIT B: Human Body Systems


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UNIT B Human Body Systems
  • Chapter 8 Human Organization
  • Chapter 9 Digestive System
  • Chapter 10 Circulatory System and Lymphatic
    System
  • Chapter 11 Respiratory System
  • Chapter 12 Nervous System
  • Chapter 13 Urinary System Section 13.1
  • Chapter 14 Reproductive System

3
Chapter 13 Urinary System
UNIT B
Chapter 13 Urinary System
What is the role of the kidneys in the body? How
would problems in the collecting ducts of the
nephrons cause kidney failure? Polycystic kidney
disease seems to cause more serious problems in
people of African descent, especially those who
have sickle cell disease. Sickle cell is mainly a
disease of the red blood cells. What does this
have to do with the kidneys?
Born with Bad Kidneys. The kidney on the left is
normal. The kidney on the right is from a person
who has polycystic kidney disease (PKD). In PKD,
cysts form within the collecting ducts of the
nephrons, which can lead to kidney failure. A
kidney transplant is required to treat PKD.
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4
13.1 The Urinary System
UNIT B
Section 13.1
Chapter 13 Urinary System
  • The urinary system is involved in excretion,
    which is the removal of metabolic wastes from the
    body.
  • The urinary system produces urine and conducts it
    outside the body.

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5
Functions of the Urinary System
UNIT B
Section 13.1
Chapter 13 Urinary System
  • Excretion of Metabolic Wastes
  • The kidneys excrete metabolic wastes (mostly
    nitrogenous wastes urea, ammonium, creatinine,
    uric acid)
  • Urea is formed when ammonia released during amino
    acid breakdown combines with CO2
  • Some ammonia (NH3) is excreted as ammonium ion
    (NH4)
  • Creatinine is a breakdown product of creatine
    phosphate, a high-energy phosphate reserve
    molecule
  • Uric acid is produced from the breakdown of
    nucleotides
  • Gout can occur if too much uric acid in the blood
    has crystallized and moved into the joints

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6
UNIT B
Section 13.1
Chapter 13 Urinary System
  • Osmoregulation
  • The kidneys are involved in osmoregulation
    (maintenance of the balance of water and salt in
    the blood)
  • Salts can cause osmosis (diffusion of water) into
    the blood, causing blood volume and blood
    pressure to increase
  • Kidneys also maintain levels of other ions, such
    as potassium (K), bicarbonate (HCO3-), and
    calcium (Ca2), in the blood
  • Regulation of Acid-Base Balance
  • The kidneys help regulate the acid-base balance
    of the blood
  • Monitor and keep blood pH at 7.4 by excreting
    hydrogen ions (H) and reabsorbing bicarbonate
    ions (HCO3-)

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7
UNIT B
Section 13.1
Chapter 13 Urinary System
  • Secretion of Hormones
  • The kidneys help the endocrine system in hormone
    secretion
  • Secrete renin, an enzyme that stimulates the
    adrenal cortex to secrete the hormone
    aldosterone, which promotes the absorption of
    sodium ions (Na) by the kidneys
  • Secrete the hormone erythropoietin (EPO) to
    simulate red blood cell production when oxygen
    demand increases
  • Help activate Vitamin D, a hormone-like molecule
    that promotes calcium (Ca2) absorption from the
    digestive tract

TO PREVIOUS SLIDE
8
Organs of the Urinary System
UNIT B
Section 13.1
Chapter 13 Urinary System
  • The urinary system consists of the kidneys,
    ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.

Figure 13.1 The urinary system. Urine is found
only within the kidneys, the ureters, the urinary
bladder, and the urethra. The kidneys are
important organs of homeostasis because they
excrete metabolic wastes and adjust both the
watersalt and acidbase balance of the blood.
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9
UNIT B
Section 13.1
Chapter 13 Urinary System
  • Kidneys
  • Paired, bean-shaped organs that regulate
    acid-base balance and water-salt balance of blood
  • Each kidney is covered by a tough connective
    tissue layer called a renal capsule
  • Each kidney has a depression (called a hilium) on
    the concave side where a renal artery enters and
    a renal vein and ureter exit

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10
UNIT B
Section 13.1
Chapter 13 Urinary System
  • Ureters
  • Small muscular tubes that transport urine from
    the kidneys to the bladder
  • Wall of each ureter has three layers inner
    mucosa, smooth muscle layer, outer fibrous
    connective tissue
  • Peristaltic contractions in the ureters cause
    urine to enter the bladder

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11
UNIT B
Section 13.1
Chapter 13 Urinary System
  • Urinary Bladder
  • Stores urine until it is expelled from the body
  • Has three openings two for the ureters, and one
    for the urethra, which drains the bladder
  • Has two sphincters that lie close to where the
    urethra exits the bladder
  • External sphincter is under voluntary control

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12
UNIT B
Section 13.1
Chapter 13 Urinary System
  • Urethra
  • Small tube opening that extends from the bladder
    to an external opening
  • Removes urine from the body
  • Males 20 cm long urethra carries urine and
    semen
  • Females 4 cm long urethra carries urine (not
    connected to reproductive system)

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13
Urination
UNIT B
Section 13.1
Chapter 13 Urinary System
  • When the bladder fills with about 250 mL of
    urine, stretch receptors send nerve impulses to
    the spinal cord
  • Motor nerve impulses from the spinal cord cause
    the bladder to contract and sphincters to relax,
    allowing urination to occur
  • The brain controls this reflex in older children
    and adults, allowing urination to be delayed

Figure 13.2 Urination. As the bladder fills with
urine, sensory impulses go to the spinal cord and
then to the brain. When urination occurs, motor
nerve impulses cause the bladder to contract and
internal and external sphincters to relax.
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14
Check Your Progress
UNIT B
Section 13.1
Chapter 13 Urinary System
  1. Define excretion.
  2. Describe the functions of the urinary system.
  3. Describe a function of the kidneys.

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15
UNIT B
Section 13.1
Chapter 13 Urinary System
TO PREVIOUS SLIDE
16
UNIT B
Section 13.1
Chapter 13 Urinary System
TO PREVIOUS SLIDE
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