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Scientific%20Revolution

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Title: Scientific%20Revolution


1
Scientific Revolution
2
  • The scientific revolution of the 17th century was
    the major cause of the change in worldview and
    one of the key developments in the evolution of
    Western society.
  • Only the West developed modern science

3
  • European ideas about the universe were based on
    Aristotelian medieval ideas.
  • Central to this view was the belief in a
    motionless earth fixed at the center of the
    universe.
  • Around the earth moved ten crystal
  • spheres, and beyond the spheres was
  • heaven.

4
Aristotles view of the Universe
  • Earth
  • 10 spheres
  • Moon
  • Mercury
  • Venus
  • Sun
  • Mars
  • Jupiter
  • Saturn
  • Firmament (stars)
  • Crystalline heaven (motion)
  • Empyrean heaven (God)
  • Nothing beyond the Empyrean heavens universe is
    finite.
  • The earth is at the center (geocentric)
  • Astronomers noted irregularities because they did
    not revolve as predicted.

5
  • Aristotle's scheme suited Christianity because it
    positioned human beings at the center of the
    universe and established a home for God.
  • Science in this period was primarily a branch of
    theology.

Ptolemys View
Early view of the solar system
6
Causes of the scientific revolution
  • Medieval universities provided the framework for
    the new science.
  • The Renaissance stimulated
  • science by rediscovering ancient
  • mathematics and supporting
  • scientific investigations.
  • The navigational problems of sea voyages
    generated scientific research and new
    instruments.

7
Causes cont
  • Better ways of obtaining knowledge about the
    world improved scientific methods.
  • Bacon advocated empirical, experimental research.
  • Descartes stressed mathematics and deductive
    reasoning.
  • The modern scientific method is based on a
    synthesis of Bacon's inductive experimentalism
    and Descartes deductive mathematical
    rationalism.

Video\The_Scientific_Revolution Astronomy
8
  • After about 1630 (the Counter Reformation), the
    Catholic church discouraged science while
    Protestantism tended to be "pro-science."

9
The Church and Science
10
Nicolaus Copernicus
11
The Copernican hypothesis
  • Copernicus, a Polish clergyman and astronomer,
    claimed that the earth revolved around the sun
    and that the sun was the center of the universe.
  • This heliocentric theory was a departure from
    medieval thought and created doubts about
    traditional Christianity.

12
  • Brahe set the stage for the modern study of
    astronomy by building an observatory and
    collecting data.
  • His assistant, Kepler, formulated
  • three laws of planetary motion that
  • proved the precise relationships
  • among planets in a sun centered
  • universe.

13
Galileo Galilei
14
  • Galileo discovered the laws of motion using the
    experimental method
  • He also applied the experimental method to
    astronomy, using the newly invented telescope.
  • Galileo was tried by the Inquisition for heresy
    in 1633 and forced to recant his views.

Video\Great_Books__Galileo_s_Dialogue
15
Kepler and Newton
16
Newton's synthesis
  • In his famous book, Principia (1687), Newton
    integrated the astronomy of Copernicus and Kepler
    with the physics of Galileo.
  • He formulated a set of mathematical laws to
    explain motion and mechanics.
  • The key feature in his synthesis
  • was the law of universal
  • gravitation.

Video\The_World_of_Isaac_Newton
17
Consequences of the scientific revolution
  • A scientific community emerged whose primary goal
    was the expansion of knowledge.
  • A modern scientific method arose that was both
    theoretical and experimental and refused to base
    its conclusions on tradition and established
    sources.
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