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Cultures in Conflict

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Cultures in Conflict A visual history of the Frontier Wars in Texas – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cultures in Conflict


1
Cultures in Conflict A visual history of the
Frontier Wars in Texas
2
Native American Needs vs. Anglo American Needs
LAND Needed for farming and ranching
LAND Needed for buffalo
  • Strengths
  • Knowledge of the territory
  • Skilled fighters
  • Strengths
  • Forts
  • Federal government support
  • Weaknesses
  • Too few in number, untrained, supply shortages
  • Forts too far apart
  • Little experience fighting Native Americans
  • Weaknesses
  • Depended on buffalo for survival
  • Disagreement among leaders

3
Medicine Lodge Treaty
Engraving of the Medicine Lodge Treaty Council,
1867 Natives agreed to stop raiding Anglo
settlements in exchange for rations and supplies
1867 present day Kansas Representatives from
the United States and representatives of the
Comanche, Kiowa, Cheyenne, Arapaho and other
southern Plains tribes sign the Medicine Lodge
Treaty, intended to remove Indians from the path
of white settlement. The treaty marks the end
of the era in which federal policymakers saw the
Plains as "one big reservation" to be divided up
among various tribes. Instead, the treaty
establishes reservations for each tribe in the
western part of present-day Oklahoma. It also
requires Native Americans to stop making raids on
Anglo American settlements and give up their
traditional lands elsewhere. In exchange, the
government pledges to establish reservation
schools and to provide resident farmers who will
teach the Indians agriculture. However, the Army
would not be allowed on reservation land.The
tribes' refusal to give up their free-ranging
traditions and remain confined within the
territory assigned to them leads to devastating
warfare.
4
Important TX Indian Chiefs and Warriors
Satank (Set-ankia) Sitting Bear Kiowa Chief who
was killed during transport to Jacksboro for
trial after the Warren Wagon Train Raid.
Kiowa
Lone Wolf (Guipago) Leader of the War Faction of
the Kiowa Tribe. He believed in fighting the
whites to keep the Kiowa way of life. Attended
the Medicine Lodge Treaty and fought at Adobe
Walls.
Kicking Bird (Te-ne-angopte) Leader of the Peace
Faction of the Kiowa Tribe. He urged his people
to adapt and became known for his preaching of
peace.
Satanta (Set-tain-te) White Bear Called
Orator of the Plains because of his speeches at
Medicine Lodge Council. Kiowa Chief involved in
the Warren Wagon Train Raid
5
Important TX Indian Chiefs and Warriors
Quanah Parker Son of a Comanche chief (Peta
Nocona) and an Anglo American woman, Cynthia Ann
Parker, who had been captured by the Comanche as
a child. He became a powerful Comanche chief who
fought to stop the spread of the Anglos.
Comanche
Ten Bears (Paruasemana) Comanche chief known for
his speech at the Medicine Lodge Treaty in
1867. "I was born upon the prairie where the wind
blew free and there was nothing to break the
light of the sun. I was born where there were no
enclosures and where everything drew a free
breath. I want to die there and not within
walls."
6
President Ulysses S. Grant Replaced military
officers on reservations with Quaker agents in an
effort to make peace
General William Tecumseh Sherman Civil War hero
who brought the total war tactics he used to
crush the Confederacy against the tribes of the
Plains
Important White Leaders of the Frontier Wars
Lawrie Tatum Quaker Agent sent by Grant to help
deal with the Native Americans in Indian
Territory. Shown here with some returned Native
captives.
General Philip Sheridan Commander of the US
Military Department of the Southwest. Helped
defeat the bill proposed by the Texas Legislature
that would have protected the buffalo
Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie, 4th Cavalry The
leader of the U.S. Army at Palo Duro
7
Aftermath of Indian attack on an early Texas
farm. The Natives economy had become dependent
on the people and supplies acquired from Anglos
during these raids. Drawing by Nola Davis,
courtesy Texas Parks and Wildlife Dept.
The threat of Indian raids was a constant source
of anxiety for settlers on the Texas frontier,
particularly after U.S. troops left Texas during
the Civil War years Painting by Nola Davis,
courtesy of Fort Richardson SHS, Texas Parks and
Wildlife Dept
On a path of destruction stretching from Linville
in south Texas to east of Austin, Comanche
raiders are intercepted by citizen militia and
rangers at the Battle of Plum Creek Engraving
from sketch by T.J. Owen (a pseudonym for the
author, O'Henry), from Wilbrager, 1889.
8
Warren Wagon Train Raid
The Warren Wagon Train Raid was a raid by the
Kiowa that served as a turning point in American
Policy toward the Natives of Texas.
Site of the Warren Wagon Train Raid Young County,
1871
Sketch depicting Warren Wagon train attack T.J.
Owen (the writer O.Henry.)
The peace policy adopted after the Medicine Lodge
Treaty was abandoned. The Quaker Agents were sent
home. The army would stop just defending the
settlers they would start attacking.
9
What the Buffalo Meant to the Native Americans
Paunch (stomach) made into water bags
Sinews (tendons) and hair were made into
bowstrings, rope, and thread
Buffalo hide became clothing, saddles, robes, and
covers for teepees
Hoofs, horns and bones became ornaments, cups,
and utensils
Buffalo Poo (dung) was used as fuel for fires
A Kiowa chief describes it this way The buffalo
is our money the robes we can prepare and
trade. We love them just as the white man does
his money. Just as it makes a white man feel to
have his money carried away, so it makes us feel
to see others killing and stealing our buffaloes,
which are our cattle given to us by the Great
Father above.

Survival
10
Using Buffalo to Destroy the Native Americans
General Philip Sheridan Instrumental in
instituting the policy of killing the buffalo to
kill the Indians
Shooting Buffalo on the Line of the
Kansas-Pacific Railroad, c. 1870
By promoting in Congressional testimony the
hunting and slaughter of the vast herds of
American Bison on the Great Plains and by other
means, Sheridan helped deprive the Indians of
their primary source of food. Professional
hunters, trespassing on Indian land, killed over
4 million bison by 1874. When the Texas
legislature considered outlawing bison poaching
on tribal lands, Sheridan personally testified
against it in Austin, Texas. He suggested that
the legislature should give each of the hunters a
medal, engraved with a dead buffalo on one side
and a discouraged-looking Indian on the other.
11
Drawing of the Adobe Walls Battle June 1874 One
of the battles of the Red River War. Quanah
Parker led 100s of warriors from 5 Native
American Nations against 29 Anglo buffalo hunters
in a failed effort to take over the camp. The
battle was a crushing spiritual defeat for the
Native Americans. However, the Natives increased
their attacks on West Texas settlements and kept
fighting in order to protect their land and stop
the killing of the buffalo. Over the next two
months they killed over 190 settlers across 5
states.
Quanah Parker Led the Comanche at Adobe Walls
Battle of Palo Duro Canyon September 1874 The
major battle of the Red River War. It was a small
battle, but it represented the last effort of the
Natives in Texas to stand up against the American
military and the advancement of the whites. The
battle ended in the confinement of the Plains
Indians to reservations in Indian Territory.
Red River War The final stand of the Plains
Indians in Texas
Colonel Mackenzie, 4th Cavalry The leader of the
U.S. Army at Palo Duro
Lone Wolf One of the chiefs defeated at the
Battle of Palo Duro
12
Charles Rath Buffalo Hunter
Between 1830-1880, the American bison, or
buffalo, was reduced in numbers from 60 million
to a mere handful. By 1900 there were only two
small wild herds in all of North America,
numbering only 550 animals. This change was
accelerated in the last 40 years of the 19th
century by the coming of the buffalo hunter and
thousands of land-hungry settlers.
J. Wright Mooar Buffalo Hunter
13
Buffalo skulls, mid-1870s, waiting to be ground
into fertilizer
The End of the Plains Indians
The railroad, the development of the hide
industry during the 1800s, and the wholesale
destruction of the buffalo guaranteed that the
Native Americans would no longer have the means
to survive
Rath Wright's buffalo hide yard, showing 40,000
buffalo hides baled for shipment. Dodge City,
Kansas, 1878
14
Buffalo Soldiers
15
The Results of the Frontier Wars of Texas
  1. Native Americans in Texas moved onto the
    reservations in Indian Territory (Oklahoma) or
    continued their fight in other states
  2. With the Native Americans out of Texas and the
    threat of raids gone, settlers could move into
    West Texas and the Panhandle and establish their
    farms and ranches
  3. Many new towns were established at this time in
    the Western half of the state
  4. The cattle industry exploded with the buffalo
    gone from the Sea of Grass cattlemen now had
    huge areas in which to raise cattle on their new
    ranches
  5. The forts were no longer needed, so many were
    closed.
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