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The 20-21st Century: Educational Trends, Heritage and Relevance

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Title: The 20-21st Century: Educational Trends, Heritage and Relevance


1
The 20-21st Century Educational Trends,
Heritage and Relevance
  • Nedaro Bellamy
  • and
  • Guillermo Pro

2
What has the most significant impact on
education?
  • Science and Technological Advancement
  • Philosophical Ideas
  • Equity Issues
  • Cultural Issues
  • National Competition
  • Socio-Economic Status
  • Politics, Nation-State Parameters
  • Religious Beliefs, Moral and Character
  • Rigorous Content and Assessment Standards

3
Class Consensus
  • Use post-it note to vote for trend with the most
    significant impact on education in your opinion

Content Standards
National Competition
Science Technology
Politics
Religion
SES
Philosophy
Equity
4
Perspectives and Influences
  • Equity
  • Ideologies/Philosophies
  • Technological Innovations
  • Authority in Education/Goals of Education

5
A Nation At Risk, 1983 National Commission on
Excellence in Education
  • the educational foundations of our society are
    presently being eroded by a rising tide of
    mediocrity that threatens our very future as a
    nation and a people.
  • If an unfriendly foreign power had attempted to
    impose on America the mediocre educational
    performance that exists today, we might well have
    viewed it as an act of war. As it stands, we
    have allowed this to happen to ourselvesWe have,
    in effect, been committing an act of unthinking,
    unilateral disarmament.
  • Gutek, pg 516

6
Inclusive Education
  • Historical trend to make formal education more
    inclusive and assessable based on ability instead
    of socio-economic status and gender.
  • Western education maintained the dual system
    according to students SES and anticipated career,
    students tracked to vocational, technical and/or
    academic tracks. Ex. Latin Grammar Schools of
    the 1600s.
  • Current educational trends are toward a more
    comprehensive secondary education, reverse in
    male dominated conceptions and attitudes toward
    education, more inclusive of women and our
    multicultural society.

7
Educational Equity Timeline
  • 1770s Importance of Education for all
    Jefferson and Franklin advise of educations
    importance for all citizens with opportunities
    for advanced study to the poor.
  • 1817 The Connecticut Asylum at Hartford for
    the Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons opens.
    First permanent school for the deaf in the U.S
  • 1829 - The New England Asylum for the Blind,
    now the Perkins School for the Blind, opens in
    Massachusetts, becoming the first school in the
    U.S. for children with visual disabilities.
  • 1833 - First tax dollars for education in
    Britain, breaking church and private monopolies.
  • 1837 - Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, first US
    college for women
  • 1918 -All US states require free education
  • 1919 - All states have laws providing funds for
    transporting children to school.
  • 1954 - On May 17th, the U.S. Supreme Court
    announces decision in the case of Brown v Board
    of Education, ruling that separate educational
    facilities are inherently unequal.

8
  • 1964 Civil Rights Act provides equal access to
    public facilities and bans discrimination in
    employment and education.
  • 1965 Elementary/Secondary Education Act to meet
    educational needs of low-achieving children in
    high poverty schools, limited-English-proficient
    children, migratory children, children with
    disabilities, Indian children, neglected or
    delinquent children, and young children in need
    of reading assistance. Incorporates key measures
    such as the Bilingual Education Act, the Indian
    Education Act, and Women's Educational Equity
    Act.
  • Higher Education Act Opportunities for
    students to enroll in and attend colleges are
    expanded with federally funded loans and
    scholarships for students of migrant and seasonal
    farm workers, American Indian higher education
    programs, and education of the deaf.
  • 1968- Bilingual Education Act Federal assistance
    is available to appropriately train educators in
    both English and the students' primary language
    to provide math, reading, science, social
    studies, and other academic subjects so that the
    students may effectively learn and competitively
    achieve.
  • 1972 Title 9 Education Amendments Based on
    Feminist Movement's demands for equal rights,
    girls and women in public schools receiving
    federal funds are to receive the same educational
    opportunities as boys and men .

9
1973 - San Antonio Independent School District
v. Rodriquez Textbooks, school facilities, and
other educational resources may be unequal
because of inequities in school funding however,
the state--not the federal government--must
provide equitable methods of financing public
schools. 1974 - Lau v. Nichols "Under
state-imposed standards there is no equality of
treatment merely by providing students with the
same facilities, textbooks, teachers, and
curriculum for students who do not understand
English are effectively foreclosed from any
meaningful education." This Supreme Court ruling
that the San Francisco school system violated the
Civil Rights Act of 1964 by not providing English
language instruction to approximately 1,800
students of Chinese ancestry led to the spread of
bilingual education in the US. Equal Educational
Opportunities Act Students may not be denied
equal educational opportunities because of their
race, color, sex, or national origin, or by the
failure of an educational agency to take
appropriate steps to overcome the language
barriers that prevent students from participating
equally in the instructional program. 1975
Education for All Handicapped Children Act All
physically challenged students are entitled to a
fair and appropriate public education. These
students' rights and federal assistance to
schools detailed.
10
  • 1982 Mississippi University for Women v.
    Hogan Mandated an end to the state law preventing
    males from enrolling in the state-operated
    nursing school. Public schools may not
    discriminate against men or women based on
    stereotypical notions of gender inferiority.
  • 1991 Charter Schools introduced that do not
    follow the standard curriculum.
  • 1994 Goals 2000 Educate America Act Provides
    resources to states and communities to ensure
    that all students reach their full potential.
    Based on outcomes based education that students
    will reach higher levels of achievement when more
    is expected of them. Congress appropriated 105
    million for fiscal year 1994.
  • 1996 -Nabozny v. Podlesny The Seventh Circuit
    Court of Appeals saw no rational basis for
    permitting one student to assault another based
    on the student's sexual orientation. The
    student's right to equal protection against
    discrimination based on gender or sexual
    orientation was violated. This ruling led the way
    for opportunities to more safely educate all
    students by making it clear that schools are
    responsible for equally enforcing school sexual
    harassment policies.
  • 1997 -Individuals with Disabilities in Education
    Act Expands the 1975 law by providing for
    cost-sharing between state and local agencies and
    for professional development for people who serve
    students with disabilities.
  • 2001 No Child Left Behind Act Reauthorizes
    the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of
    1965 with a focus on accountability, choice and
    supplemental educational opportunities.

11
National Assessment of Education Progress
  • Identified connections between students SES and
    what is provided for them in their classrooms.
  • 84 of teachers in schools with middle or upper
    class students received all or most of resources
    requested for instruction.
  • 59 of schools with largest percentage of poor
    students received only some or none of the
    instructional materials and resources requested
    for instruction. These students also achieved
    lower math proficiencies.
  • Educational Testing Service, 1991

12
Equity v Equality
  • Program Equity Shift focus from available
    dollars (per pupil expenditure) to educational
    resources for federal and state funds.
  • Implementation Equity Ensure that effective
    programs and services for poor, at-risk and
    diverse students are not only planned and
    financed but carried out effectively

13
Ideology
  • Provides organizing principles for politics,
    economy, society and education. WWII Nazism v-
    Diverse Ideologies (Democratic Capitalism and
    Marxist-Leninist Communism)
  • 19th and 20th century educational policies was
    driven by opposing ideologies.
  • Increasing multicultural and multilingual
    populations in Western nations as well as global
    economic integration.
  • Will economic integration require a multicultural
    ideology or will one ethnic group suppress
    another?

14
NCBL Major Provisions
  • Adequate Yearly Progress States to create an
    accountability system of assessments, graduation
    rates, and other indicators. Schools have to make
    (AYP), as determined by the state, by raising the
    achievement levels of subgroups of students such
    as African Americans, Latinos, low-income
    students, and special education students to a
    state-determined level of proficiency. All
    students must be proficient by the 2013-2014
    school year.
  • Teacher Quality Requires that by the end of the
    2005-2006 school year all teachers will be
    "highly qualified" as defined in the law. A
    highly qualified teacher is one who has fulfilled
    the state's certification and licensure
    requirements.
  • Student Testing The progress of all students
    will be measured annually in reading and math in
    grades 3 through 8 and at least once during high
    school. By the end of the 2007-2008 school year,
    testing will also be conducted in science once
    during grades 35, 69, and 1012.
  • Parent Involvement States are required to issue
    detailed report cards on the status of schools
    and districts. Parents must also be informed when
    their child is being taught by a teacher who does
    not meet "highly qualified" status.
  • Scientifically-based Research Schools are
    required to use "scientifically based research"
    strategies in the classroom and for professional
    development of staff. Research meeting this
    label, which includes only a small portion of the
    total research conducted in the field of
    education and related fields, must involve large
    quantitative studies using control groups as
    opposed to partially or entirely qualitative or
    ethnographic studies.
  • Public School Choice Schools identified as
    needing improvement are required to provide
    students with the opportunity to take advantage
    of public school choice no later than the
    beginning of the school year following their
    identification for school improvement

15
Ideology and NCBL
  • Accountability for Results Creates strong
    standards in each state for what every child
    should know and learn in reading and math in
    grades 3-8. Student progress and achievement will
    be measured for every child, every year.
  • Unprecedented State Local Flexibility Provides
    new flexibility for all 50 states and every local
    school district in America in the use of federal
    education funds.
  • Focusing Resources on Proven Educational Methods
    Focuses educational dollars on proven,
    research-based approaches that will most help
    children to learn.
  • Expanded Choices for Parents Enhances options
    for parents with children in chronically failing
    schools - and makes these options available
    immediately in the 2002-03 school year for
    students in thousands of schools already
    identified as failing under current law.

16
NCBL Educational Choice
  • Public/Charter School Choice Once a school is
    identified as failing, parents will be allowed to
    transfer their child to a better-performing
    public or charter school.
  • Supplemental Services For the first time,
    federal Title I funds (approximately 500 to
    1,000 per child) can be used to provide
    supplemental educational services - including
    tutoring, after school services, and summer
    school programs - for children in failing
    schools. Services can be provided by faith- and
    community-based organizations.
  • Charter Schools Expands the charter school
    initiative, creating more opportunities for
    parents, educators and interested community
    leaders to create schools outside the education
    establishment.

17
Considerations
  • Has equity legislation and ideology improved
    todays classrooms?
  • What additional issues need to be considered in
    promoting equity in classrooms?
  • Have current reform and standards-based movements
    assisted or prevented equity?

18
Technology An Electronic World Order
  • Ideas and information are no longer dependent on
    distance.

19
Technology the process of modernization
requires elite, specialized, formalized,
technologically specialized education.
20
Information can be restricted or made
into propaganda
21
Technologys impact on Enlightenment and
Understanding Information can be instant
22
Information can be manipulated Is this 9-11
photograph real or fake?
23
Real or fake?
24
Technology in the NEWS There is Potential for
controlling understanding if no reflection is
present.
25
Hurricane Katrina Technology can Control and
reduce the understanding of what is significant
26
The immediacy of the present moment may persist.
27
Provides learning experiences ranging from
remediation to enrichment. Technology also can
provide easy access to vast resources.
Technology can be used to individualize
instruction
The design of the technology tool and the
instructional methods surrounding its use need
to be congruent.
  • Technology empowers new solutions and opens doors
    to learning opportunities previously unavailable.
  • Hands-on access to computers and ancillary
    equipment for all students on a regular basis is
    a determining factor in the success of
    technology.
  • (Valdez McNabb, 1997)

28
Authority in Education
  • Appropriateness of Education A Dilemma
  • Plato certain education is appropriate if
    society is divided into classes such as

philosopher kings,
working masses
military defenders
29
Authority continued
19th century rise of the concept of educational
opportunity Common Schools in the U.S. Welfare
States in Europe introduced uniform
education The promise of socioeconomic mobility
Equal education
  • Thomas Jefferson Aristocracy of intellect
  • Authoritarian churches, institutions, and states
    appropriate to certain classes of people

30
Formal Education
  • Conflict arises between those who perceive the
    school as selective and those who see it as a
    comprehensive social agency.
  • The rise of the national school system in the
    late 18th and 19th centuries used education to
    instill a sense of national identification in the
    individual.
  • In the English and American laissez-faire liberal
    tradition of the early 19th century Freedom
    from government intervention was recognized as an
    important prerequisite of individual liberty.
  • Welfare-state conception of modern liberalism and
    socialism asserted a states obligation of all
    individuals, especially members of oppressed
    groups.
  • 19th century working classes benefited from the
    extension of government into social, economic,
    and educational affairs.

31
20th century
  • Government intervention has benefited minority
    groups.
  • States willingness to intervene has established
    social, economic, educational, and cultural
    conditions that contribute to the full
    development of the citizen
  • Police state systems thought control in an
    attempt to exercise complete control over the
    lives of their citizens. Ex Ancient Sparta,
    Napoleonic France, Soviet regimes, and Nazi
    Germany.
  • Nazi Germany As Nash points out Nazi Germany
    sought to crush the intellectual, artistic, and
    academic freedom in the 1930s and 1940s.
  • While the curriculum of general education has
    sought to build an identification with the
    nation-state, there are educators who minimize
    cultural differences among people.

32
According to Robert M. Hutchins
  • Education implies teaching.
  • Teaching implies knowledge. Knowledge is truth.
  • The truth is everywhere the same.
  • Hence, education should be everywhere the same.
  • What is your perspective?

33
References
  • History of American Education Web Project
  • http//www.ux1.eiu.edu/7Ecfrnb/euro.html
  • Dept of Education
  • www.ed.gov/legislation/ESEA02/
  • Learning Library
  • www.worldwidelearn.com/education-timeline/index.ht
    ml
  • School Integration Timeline
  • http//www.nea.org/brownvboard/integrationtimeline
    .html
  • Curriculum Integration Education
  • http//www.ncsu.edu/chass/extension/ci/timeline.ht
    ml
  • School the Story of American Public Education
  • http//www.pbs.org/kcet/publicschool/roots_in_hist
    ory/index.html
  • History of Education Selected Moments of the
    20th Century
  • http//fcis.oise.utoronto.ca/7Edaniel_schugurensk
    y/assignment1/00s
  • Learning Point Associates
  • http//ncrel.org/tplan/guide/int6.html
  • Technology in the Classroom
  • http//www.webquest.org/questgarden/lessons/20893-
    060403085050
  • Urban Legends
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