Exploring genotypic and environmental influences on crop quality - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Exploring genotypic and environmental influences on crop quality PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 76c7b9-ZWY4N



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Exploring genotypic and environmental influences on crop quality

Description:

Exploring genotypic and environmental influences on crop quality January 15, 2013 Canby, Oregon Ted Radovich, Ph.D. Sustainable Farming Systems Laboratory – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:93
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 35
Provided by: Andrew1473
Learn more at: http://nwhortsoc.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Exploring genotypic and environmental influences on crop quality


1
Exploring genotypic and environmental influences
on crop quality January 15, 2013 Canby, Oregon
Ted Radovich, Ph.D. Sustainable Farming Systems
Laboratory Department of Tropical Plant and Soil
Sciences University of Hawaii at Manoa
theodore_at_hawaii.edu
2
Big Blue Ribbon
3
A Shift in Focus
  • Quality vs. quantity
  • Antioxidants
  • Eating quality
  • Superfoods
  • Farming for functionality and flavor

4
  • Color, flavor and human health potential are
    chemically based, and plant chemistry is
    influenced by both genotype and environment.

5
Terroir
Cabernet Franc
Variety
6
Produce flavor and nutrient content is dependent
on how it's grown.
Organic produce tastes better and is better for
you!
7
Crop Management and Quality
  • Examples from Ohio and Hawai'i
  • Head cabbage flavor
  • Pakchoi phytonutrient content
  • Hot pepper pungency

8
Glucosinolates
  • Secondary metabolites in found in cabbage family.
  • Derived from amino acids
  • Anti-carcinogenic
  • Pungency, typical cabbage flavor.

9
Problem
Buyers in Ohio began rejecting cabbage that was
perceived as too pungent. How do growers produce
cabbage with low pungency?
10
Planting Date
  • May-planted cabbage was higher in glucosinolates
    than June-planted across years for all cultivars.

Radovich et al. 2005. HortScience 40106-110.
11
Planting Date
  • The effect of planting date and year was
    attributed to the number of days above 30 C
    during head development

May 02
May 01
June 02
June 01
12
Planting Date
  • Cultivars with high glucosinolates were more
    pungent.

Radovich et al. 2005. HortScience
40106-110. Radovich et al. 2003. Acta Hort.
628787-795
13
Irrigation
  • Plants receiving irrigation during head
    development were lower in all glucosinolates.

Radovich et al. 2005. Journal of the American
Society for Horticultural Science 130 943-949.
14
Irrigation
  • Irrigation effect on glucosinolates was
    attributed to the fraction of evapotranspiration
    replaced during head development.

Total
Brassicin
15
Managing phytonutrient content Pakchoi as model
  • Glucosinolate, carotenoids, phenolics
  • High value
  • Evaluate
  • Response to compost tea
  • Aquaponic variety trials


32
16
Compost Tea
  • Uses air and water to extract
  • Nutrients
  • Organic acids
  • Microbes
  • Ratio of water to compost ranges 101-1001
  • Water is not circulated, only air
  • 12-24 hrs


32
17
Compost Tea
  • Positively impacts growth.
  • Glucosinolate and carotenoid follow biomass.
  • Effect is consistant across soil and media.
  • Response dependent on rate and quality of
    compost.
  • Aeration and additives not necessary.

Oxisol
Mollisol
Pant et al. 2009. J.Sci.Food Agric.
Pant et al. 2011. Compost Science and Utilization.
Peat
18
Mechanisms
Growth response associated with improved nutrient
status associated increased root growth,
increased microbial activity and added nutrients
(Pant et al., 2012).
9
9
19
Phenolics and antioxidant activities were higher
under very low nitrogen availability.
20
Carotenoid and Glucosinolate content increased
with nutrient availability.
Glucosinolates
Carotenoids
Total carotenoids (mg kg -1 dry weight)
Total glucosinolates (mg kg -1 dw)
Above ground dry weight (mg plant -1)
Above ground dry weight (mg plant -1)
29
30
21
Aquaponics
22
Aquaponics
23
Pakchoi variety trials at Waimanalo
  • 3 week old seedlings of seven Pakchoi varieties
    were transplanted 7/26/12 at the Waimanalo
    Research Station.
  • 4 reps, 6 plants per rep with 8 inch spacing
    between and within rows.
  • Effluent from 350 fish in a 650 gallon tank was
    recirculated through 4'x48' beds with black
    cinder media.
  • Head weights were recorded on 3 plants from each
    rep 28 days after transplanting. The 4th leaf
    from the center was collect for mineral and
    phytonutrients analyses.

24
Glucosinolate content
25
Total Phenolic content
26
Its Chile in Hawaii
Hawaiian type C frutescens
  • Hot peppers are important in Hawaii.
  • Hot sauces, Asian-Pacific Latin Cuisine.
  • Hawaii has done some breeding and selecting.
  • TAMU has extensive chile breeding program.
  • No data on capsaicinoid concentrations in
    peppers grown under Hawaii conditions.

Waialua Hot Pepper
TAMU Mild Habanero
27
Its Chile in Hawaii
Hawaiian type C frutescens
Waialua Hot Pepper
Photo courtesy Dr. Kevin Crosby
TAMU Mild Habanero
28
Range of Capsaicinoid Concentration
29
Habanero
30
Jalapeño
31
Hawaiian Thai types
32
Take Home Message
  • Variety is the most useful tool to maximize
    quality.
  • Stress can increase concentrations of some
    phytonutrients but decease yield
  • Minimize stress to optimize yield and quality.

33
Acknowledgements
  • Kleinhenz Lab (OSU)
  • Crosby Lab (TAMU)
  • Talcott Lab (TAMU)
  • Hue Lab (UHM)
  • UH Aquaponics Lab
  • Archana Pant
  • Jensen Uyeda
  • Amjad Ahmad
  • Roger Corrales
  • Servalano Lamer
  • Craig Okazaki
  • USDA Funding
  • OREI
  • TSTAR
  • WSARE
  • Hatch

34
http//www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/sustainag/
About PowerShow.com