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Plant%20Classification

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Title: Plant%20Classification


1
Plant Classification
2
WHAT IS A PLANT?
  • Plants are defined as eukaryotes that have cell
    walls containing cellulose and carry out
    photosynthesis using chlorophyll.
  • Most all plants are multi-cellular and are
    autotrophs (make their own food).
  • A few plants are parasites.
  • Plants develop from developed embryos.

3
How many plants are there?
  • About 350,000 plants are known to exist, and new
    ones are still being discovered.
  • As of 2004, scientists have named 287,655 plants.
  • 258,650 flowering plants.
  • The rest are mosses, ferns, and green algae.

4
Vascular Plants
  • Understanding how plants grow and develop helps
    us capitalize on their usefulness and make them
    part of our everyday lives.
  • In horticulture we tend to focus on vascular and
    non- vascular plants
  • Vascular plants are those that contain water- and
    nutrient-conducting tissues called xylem and
    phloem
  • Non-vascular plants must rely on each cell
    directly absorbing the nutrients that they need.

5
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6
Plant Classification
  • -a means of grouping plants according to their
    similarities

7
Plant Classifications
  • Botanical
  • Identifies plants according to their physical
    characteristics
  • What you see!

8
Plant Classifications
  • Descriptive
  • System that identifies plants by their use and
    life cycle
  • How they grow and reproduce!

9
Botanical System of Classification
  • 7 Categories
  • Kingdom
  • Division/Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species

10
Binomial Nomenclature
Botanical nomenclature is the orderly
classification and naming of plants. Universal
language (Latin) The binomial system specifies
that a plant name must have at least two
parts. Derived from Latin bi 2 nomin
name. The requirement for both a genus and a
specific epithet to name a species is what
defines the system as binomial
11
The Origin of Botanical Names
  • Taxonomy Area that deals with naming of plants.
  • Carolus Linnaeus Father of the Bionomial
    System
  • Binomial Systems is has two parts
  • Genus (last name) - Upper Case
  • species (first name) Epithet (lower case)

12
PLANT NOMENCLATURE AND CLASSIFICATION
  • In the botanical name for theFrench marigold
    -Tagetes patula
  • Tagetes is called the genus(genera, plural).
  • patula is called the specific epithet.
  • When combined, these twowords form the plant
    species.

13
Varieties and Cultivars
  • Plants mostly are distinguished by two parts
  • Genus and species
  • However, through mutations and breeding change
    occurs.
  • To distinguish a third part is added to the
    binomial system
  • Cultivar and Variety

14
Cultivar Variety
  • A cultivar is human-made and/or -maintained.
  • The name is short for cultivated
  • i.e. seed and seedless grapes
  • Labeled - cv
  • A plant variety is a naturally occurring mutation
    or offspring different significantly from the
    parent.
  • i.e. A species with white flowers might
    spontaneously mutate and a new variety with pink
    flowers would appear.
  • Labeled - var. or v.

15
Classification of Plants
  • The plant kingdom has become successful all over
    the Earth. They have done so by adapting to a
    wide variety of different conditions and niches.
  • The following are some major groups of plants.
  • Bryophytes
  • Ferns
  • Gymnosperms
  • Angiosperms

16
Major Groups of Plants
  • Bryophytes
  • Non-vascular plants. Live in damp areas.
  • Mosses, Liverworts

17
Major Groups of Plants
  • Ferns
  • Vascular Plants, which produce spores. Have no
    true leaves.

18
All other plants are put into two main
categories
Gymnosperms Includes evergreen cone-bearing
plants like pines, spruces, junipers and yews.
Foliage generally is needlelike, and they do not
have flowers or juicy fruits.
Angiosperms All flowering plants nearly all
food plants. Primary identifying characteristic
is the flower, which includes a plant ovary,
which swells to become the fruit with seeds
inside.
19
Angiosperms are divided into two other groups.
  • Monocots and Dicots

20
What is a cotyledon?
  • A cotyledon is the fleshy structure within a seed
    that contains food for a developing embryo.
  • It is also the first seed leaves to appear as the
    seed germinates. Also known as seed leaves.
  • Whether a plant is a monocot or dicot can help
    determine its method of propagation and
    susceptibility to weed killers.

21
Monocots
  • 1 cotyledon in a seed
  • Long narrow leaves with parallel veins
  • Vascular bundles scattered throughout
  • Non-woody (dont produce wood)
  • Flower petals in multiples of 3
  • Roots are fibrous (shallow and small)

22
Monocots

23
Dicots
  • Seeds with 2 seed leaves or 2 cotyledons
  • Branching veins patterns (webbed or net-like)
  • Flowers parts in multiples of 4 or 5
  • Woody plants
  • Vascular bundles shape of a ring
  • Root system composed of primary tap root and many
    root hairs (large and deep)

24
Dicot

25

26
Monocots and Dicots
  • Monocots
  • 1- One cotyledon
  • 2- Leaves-parallel venation
  • 3- Stems-vascular bundles scattered throughout
    the stem
  • 4- Flower parts in multiples of 3
  • 5- Fibrous root system
  • Dicots
  • 1- Two cotyledons
  • 2- Leaves-netted venation
  • 3- Stems-bundles arranged in a ring
  • 4- Flower parts in multiples of 4 or 5
  • 5- Taproot system

27
Monocots vs. Dicots
28
Plant Classification
  • When classifying plants they are classified more
    by their stem types, foliage retention and
    flowering patterns (visual characteristics)
  • Also, plants are classified by their life
    structures, life cycle and genetics.

29
Plant Classification
  • The life structure and cycle is based on their
  • Vegetative Growth Period
  • (leaves, stem)
  • Reproductive Growth Period
  • (asexual, sexual, seeds, etc.)
  • Dormancy Growth Period
  • (winter, summer, fall and spring)

30
Plant Classification
  • Plants are divided into three (3) life cycles
    (start to finish).
  • Annuals Complete their life cycle in one growing
    season.
  • Biennials Completes their life cycle in two
    growing seasons.
  • Perennials Plants that live for three or more
    growing seasons.

31
Annual Growth Cycle
32
Annuals
  • They have to be replanted every year.
  • Have an Herbaceous stem, which is a stem with no
    woody tissue in it
  • Summer Annuals
  • Planted in spring, harvested in fall
  • Winter Annuals
  • Planted in fall, harvested in following summer
  • Petunias, Marigolds, Geraniums, impatiens, etc.

33
Biennial Growth Cycle
34
Biennials
  • Complete their vegetative growth in the first
    year, and then usually flowers during their
    second season.
  • They must also be replanted every year.
  • Cabbage, beets, carrots, peas, etc
  • Cool season vegetables

35
Perennial Life Cycle
36
Perennials
  • Flower for a short time. They can be both soft
    (Herbaceous) and hard woody plants.
  • Perennials do not usually have a predetermined
    age of death.
  • Herbaceous Shrubs
  • Woody Maple, Apple, etc.

37
Annuals, Biennials, Perennials
  • Annuals complete their life cycle in one
    season.
  • Examples Marigold, Petunias, and many more!

38
Biennials complete their life cycle in two
seasons. (first season vegetative growth, second
season reproduce)
  • Examples Holly Hocks, Fox Glove

39
Perennials
  • Plants that grow season after season
  • Examples Roses, Shasta Daisy
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