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World War II: The Road to War

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World War II: The Road to War IV. From Isolationism to War Objectives Find out why the US chose neutrality in the 1930s. See how American involvement in the European ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World War II: The Road to War


1
World War II The Road to War
  • IV. From Isolationism to War

2
Objectives
  • Find out why the US chose neutrality in the
    1930s.
  • See how American involvement in the European
    conflict grew from 1939 1941.
  • Discover why Japans attack on Pearl Harbor led
    the US to declare war.

3
Bell Ringer
  • Name some places today where there is armed
    conflict.
  • Is the US involved in these conflicts?
  • What does isolationism mean?
  • Why would the US be isolationist in the years
    leading up to WWII?

4
A) The US Chooses Neutrality
  • Great Depression kept US policy domestic.
  • Hawley-Smoot tariff kept US isolated.
  • Neutrality Acts laws designed to keep the US
    out of war
  • 1935 banned giving weapons to countries at war
    1936 banned loans to warring nations 1937
    trade to warring nations okay as long as paid
    cash and used their ships
  • Cash and carry trade to warring nations okay as
    long as paid cash and used their ships
  • Roosevelt pointed out that this stance actually
    promoted aggression

5
B) American Involvement Grows
  • Roosevelt's gets Neutrality acts lessened to help
    Britain and France
  • After France fell shocked all aid short of
    war
  • US gave 50 destroyers to Britain for land for
    bases
  • America First Committee group of influential
    people determined to keep US neutral Lindbergh

6
Lend - Lease
  • US still would not lend money to allies
  • Churchill wrote letter we are bankrupt
  • Lend Lease act President can aid any nation
    he deems vital to US security (fireside) (50
    destroyers)
  • US sent aid to UK and eventually USSR
  • During war we lend 49 billion dollars to 40
    countries

7
C) Japan Attacks Pearl Harbor
  • To stop Japanese aggression, Roosevelt restricts
    trade steel, oil, iron actually promotes it.
  • New Japanese PM General Tojo Kideki anti-US.
  • US had broken Japanese codes knew their fleet
    was missing but where?

8
Admiral Isoruku Yamamoto
  • Wanted to avoid war with the US
  • Had lived here and studied at Harvard
  • He believed that he could knock the US out of the
    war for 1 year, by then, Japan had to have
    conquered land where they could get the much
    needed supplies.
  • November 26th, 1941 33 ships left Japan towards
    Pearl Harbor

9
The Plan
  • Pearl Harbor US military base in the Pacific
    Ocean. Located on the Hawaiian Island of Oahu.
  • Pearl Harbor is shallow natural harbor with Ford
    Island in the center
  • Battle ship row is located off Ford Island
  • Main targets were the 3 aircraft carriers at
    Pearl Harbor secondary targets were battleships
  • USS Lexington, USS Saratoga, USS Enterprise

10
First Wave Attack
  • December 7th, 1941
  • 10 midget submarines try to sneak into Pearl
    Harbor
  • One sunk by Ward, one beached itself on Oahu, one
    made it into the harbor and was rammed by the
    Monaghan, one was sunk by the St. Louis, rest
    never heard from.

11
USS Ward
  • Destroyer 700 am, sighted a submarine and sank
    it
  • Sent message, We have attacked, fired upon, and
    dropped depth charges on a submarine in the
    defensive sea area Message was ignored

12
Radar Confirmation
  • Radar was new and untested
  • 12 B-17 bombers were flying in from California
    that morning
  • Harbor radar picked up the Japanese planes and
    thought it was the B-17s.
  • The B-17s were actually passed by the Japanese
    attack force and US crew took pictures of them

13
Tora! Tora! Tora!
  • 740 am, Lt. Commander Fuchida gave the order to
    began achieving complete surprise.
  • Hickman field was destroyed, Wheeler was hit, and
    Haleiwa field was ignored. Some US planes did
    get up in the air.
  • All US planes were crammed together in the middle
    of the runway to protect against sabotage.
  • 8 battleships were lined up nice and neat near
    Ford Island

14
USS Utah
  • WWI Battleship
  • Outdated and was going to be used as a target
    ship
  • She was moored where the aircraft carriers were
    supposed to be.
  • She was hit by 2 torpedoes and capsized
  • 61 men killed

15
USS Arizona
  • A bomb penetrated her forward magazine and
    detonated her cartridges completely incinerating
    her forward deck.
  • Ship immediately sunk to the floor killing 1,100
    men
  • They are still entombed their today

16
USS West Virginia
  • Hit by 7 torpedoes on the port side
  • Captain died on the bridge
  • A young officer quickly directed a counter
    flooding and prevented the ship from capsizing

17
USS Oklahoma
  • Hit by 3 torpedoes and capsized in 20 min.
  • Her crew were strafed when they climbed over the
    rolling ship.
  • 415 men killed
  • 32 men were cut out of the bottom the next day,
    alive

18
USS Nevada
  • Protected from smoke of the Arizona
  • Young officer gave orders for an emergency boiler
    start.
  • Got steam up in 45 min, (usual 2 hours) and took
    off after the Japanese fleet
  • Under way when the 2nd wave of the attack began.
  • Hit 5 times and beached herself before it would
    block the harbor entrance

19
Japans Mistake
  • Failed to destroy the 4,500,000 barrels of fuel
    at harbor
  • Did not destroy the ship repair facilities
  • Sunk 0 submarines
  • All but 3 of the 18 ships were repaired and
    fighting within 8 months (Arizona, Oklahoma, and
    Utah)
  • US would fight with subs for 8 months

20
D) US Declares War
  • 18 out of 96 ships sunk of seriously damaged
  • Roosevelt Dec 7th, 1941, a date which will
    live in infamy
  • Dec 8th, 1941 asks Congress for a declaration
    of war one no vote Renkin
  • December 11th Germany and Italy declare war on US
    WWII is now official
  • Hitler gives Honorary Aryans title to Japanese.

21
Review
  • Why did the US choose neutrality in the 1930s?
  • How did American involvement in the European
    conflict grow from 1939 to 1941?
  • Why did Japans attack on Pearl Harbor lead the
    US to declare war?
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