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Intro. to Behavioral Endocrinology, Third Edition

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Topic 12 Rhythms, Stress, and Associated Hormones – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Intro. to Behavioral Endocrinology, Third Edition


1
Topic 12 Rhythms, Stress, and Associated
Hormones
2
Rhythms and Hormones
3
10.1 Endocrine function shows rhythmic variation
over time (Part 1)
  • Chronobiology is a field of biology that examines
    periodic (cyclic) actions in living organisms.
    These cycles are known as biological rhythms.
  • Chronobiology comes from the ancient Greek word
    chrónos which means "time
  • Chronobiological studies are important in many
    fields of biology, but especially in anatomy,
    physiology, endocrinology, developmental biology,
    genetics, ecology, molecular biology and
    behavioral biology.

Hourly fluctuations in LH secretion.
4
10.1 Endocrine function shows rhythmic variation
over time (Part 2)
Daily fluctuations in LH secretion
5
10.1 Endocrine function shows rhythmic variation
over time (Part 3)
Special Note Notice how we can see different
rhythms that are seen in these hamster LH levels
depending upon the sampling frequencies. There
are actually three different cyclic patterns
observable.
Yearly fluctuations in LH secretion
6
Jean Jacques Dortous De Mairan (1678-1771) a
french astronomer that is credited with
identifying the internal biological clock.
7
10.3 De Mairans experiment
The plant shown is heliotropic, meaning it
typically responds to sunlight for opening and
closing. Yet, the researcher found this species
would open close cyclically in the absence of
sunlight. The cyclicity was not due to light
intensity but instead due to an INTERNAL CLOCK in
an organism.
8
Note that entrainment is the alignment of a
circadian system's period and phase to the period
and phase of an external rhythm.
9
10.4 The diversity of biological rhythms (Part 2)
10
10.5 The collection of data on behavioral
biological rhythms (Part 1)
  • Each turn of the wheel creates a mark on the
    chart.
  • Black bands indicate long periods of running.
  • The running pattern can be correlated with time
    of day (see C).

11
10.5 The collection of data on behavioral
biological rhythms (Part 2)
12
10.8 Ultradian rhythms in human plasma glucose
level and insulin secretion rate
  • Ultradian rhythms are shorter rhythms than
    circadian (shown).
  • Sometimes the term infradian rhythms is used
    to describe rhythms close to but longer than
    circadian (not shown).

13
10.14 Circadian rhythms in human physiology and
behavior
14
The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN) is important in
rhythms.
Optic Chiasm shown as the X
15
10.22 SCN damage disrupts the daily sleepwake
cycle in humans
  • The suprachiasmatic nucleus or nuclei
    (abbreviated SCN) is a small region of the brain
    found directly above the optic chiasm. It is
    responsible for controlling circadian rhythms.
  • The neuronal and hormonal activities it generates
    regulate many different body functions in a
    24-hour cycle, using around 20,000 neurons.
  • The SCN interacts with many other regions of the
    brain. It contains several cell types and
    produces several different peptides (including
    vasopressin and vasoactive intestinal peptide)
    and a variety of neurotransmitters.

16
10.23 The three main components of a mammalian
biological clock system
Notice how the SCN exerts effects both neurally
and hormonally.
The SCN sends information to other hypothalamic
nuclei and the pineal gland to modulate body
temperature and production of hormones such as
cortisol and melatonin.
17
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has
    approved tasimelteon (Hetlioz, Vanda
    Pharmaceuticals Inc) for the treatment of
    non24-hour sleep-wake disorder (non-24), in
    January 2014.
  • Non-24 is a chronic circadian rhythm disorder
    that disrupts the sleep-wake cycle and affects
    the majority of totally blind individuals.
    Without input from the eyes, information about
    environmental light levels fails to reach the
    suprachiasmatic nuclei in the hypothalamus to
    synchronize the internal clock.
  • As a result, levels of the hormone melatonin,
    produced by the pineal gland and playing a key
    role as a feedback regulator of the master
    circadian clock, peak at later and later times
    each day, disrupting the sleep-wake cycle.

18
10.30 Melatonin measures night length
19
Stress Hormones
20
11.2 Catecholamine concentrations peaked on the
day of a Ph.D. exam (Part 1)
Does this secretion pattern seem familiar?
21
11.2 Catecholamine concentrations peaked on the
day of a Ph.D. exam (Part 2)
22
11.3 Hypothalamicpituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis
releases several hormones in response to stress
23
11.4 Blood hormone concentrations are altered by
the stress of parachute jumps (Part 1)
24
11.4 Blood hormone concentrations are altered by
the stress of parachute jumps (Part 2)
25
11.7 Prolactin inhibits reproductive function
(Part 1)
26
11.7 Prolactin inhibits reproductive function
(Part 2)
27
11.8 Wound healing is impaired in stressed
caregivers
28
11.11 Stress responses are reduced in offspring
that received maternal attention as pups
29
11.12 Epigenetic influences of maternal behavior
on offspring
30
11.17 Dominant male rats have lower
corticosterone and higher testosterone when
stressed
31
11.18 Exercise elevates testosterone in men
32
11.26 Leg-swinging displacement activity reduces
heart rate
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Hyperparathyroidism produces considerable osseous
erosion and the development of brown tumors
(osteoclastomas) and also osteoporosis.
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