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** Animals without a

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Title: Invertebrates Ch. 26-28 Author: brittany.matheson Last modified by: Rogers, Nora Created Date: 4/12/2011 6:00:14 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ** Animals without a


1
  • Animals without a
  • backbone or spinal column.

2
Sponges Cnidarians
  • Characteristics
  • Sessile do not move
  • Asymmetrical
  • Filter feeders- sift food particles from water

3
Phylum Porifera pore bearers Sponges!!
4
Sessile
5
Sponges Cnidarians
  1. Movement of water provides for feeding,
    respiration, circulation and excretion
  2. Skeleton composed of spongin (soft) and spicules
    (hard).

6
Sponges Cnidarians
  • Specialized Cells
  • Choanocytes collar cells layer of cells with
    flagella keeps water moving food vacuoles inside
    digest plankton (filter feeder).
  • Osculum- large opening at top of sponge water
    exits.
  • Ostia- small openings at the side water enters
    pores!

7
Specialized Cells
8
Phylum Cnidaria Hydras, Jellyfish, Sea Anemone,
Coral
9
Sponges Cnidarians
  • What are they?
  • Soft bodied, carnivorous animals with stinging
    tentacles around their mouth.
  • Nematocysts- poison-filled, stinging structure
    that contains a coiled dart.

10
Nematocyst
11
Sponges Cnidarians
  • Form and Function
  • Body plan
  • Polyp- usually sessile mouth points upward
  • Medusa- motile, bell-shaped body with mouth on
    bottom
  • Feeding- paralyze prey and pull it into
    gastrovascular cavity.
  • (Gastro feeding, Vascular circulation)

12
Polyp
Medusa
13
Sponges Cnidarians
  • Groups of Cnidarians
  • Jellyfish
  • Vary in size with the largest being almost 4
    meters in diameter and tentacles more than 30
    meters long smallest is a few inches in
    diameter.
  • Australian box jelly deadly to humans.
  • Both polyp and medusa forms.

14
Sponges Cnidarians
  • Australian
  • Box Jellyfish

The top prize for The World Most Venomous Animal
would go to the Box Jellyfish. It has caused at
least 5,567 recorded deaths since 1954. Their
venom is among the most deadly in the world. It
toxins attack the heart, nervous system, and skin
cells. And the worst part of it is that jelly box
venom is so overpoweringly painful, that human
victims go in shock, drown or die of heart
failure before even reaching shore. Survivors
experience pain weeks after the contact with box
jellies.
15
Sponges Cnidarians
Irukandji jellyfish worlds smallest!!
The deadly Irukandji jellyfish is a tiny killer
and can be unnoticed in the water. With bell and
tentacles just 2.5 centimetres across, it is
almost impossible to detect. A sting by the
Irukandji jellyfish, on the other hand, is often
felt as nothing more than a painful irritant with
a rash akin to that of prickly heat. By the time
more serious symptoms appear, it may be too late
to save a life.
16
Sponges Cnidarians
Lions Mane Jellyfish Worlds Largest!
Although capable of attaining a bell diameter of
2.5 m (8 feet), these jellyfish can greatly vary
in size, those found in lower latitudes are much
smaller than their far northern counterparts with
bells about 50 cm (20 inches) in diameter.
The tentacles of larger specimens may trail as
long as 30 m (90 feet) or more. These extremely
sticky tentacles are grouped into eight clusters,
each cluster containing over 100
tentacles,5 arranged in a series of rows. At
120 feet in length, the largest known specimen
was longer than a Blue Whale and is generally
considered the longest known animal in the
world.678 
17
Sponges Cnidarians
  • Groups of Cnidarians
  • Hydras and their relatives
  • Hydras have only polyp form
  • Texas coast Portuguese man-of-war has a polyp
    that forms a balloon-like float for the colony
    with stinging tentacles that can be meters long!

18
Phylum CnidariaHydras and relatives
19
Portuguese Man of War
Size Float, 12 in (30 cm) long, 5 in (12.7 cm)
wide tentacles, up to 165 ft (50 m) long
Size relative to a 6-ft (2-m) man
20
Sponges Cnidarians
  • Groups of Cnidarians
  • Sea Anemones and Corals
  • Sea anemones are individual polyps
  • Hard corals secrete skeleton of limestone and
    live as colonies for hundreds or thousands of
    years (many together create a coral reef)
  • Largest reef is the Great Barrier Reef in
    Australia- can be seen from space!!

21
Phylum CnidariaSea Anemones and Corals
22
Great Barrier Reef Of Australia
23
Great Barrier Reef as seen from space
24
Worms and Mollusks
25
Worms and Mollusks
  • Phylum Platyhelminthes flatworms
  • Form and function
  • Pharynx muscular tube to suck in food
    (digestive)
  • Rely on diffusion for transport of oxygen and
    nutrients (because of flatness) (circulatory)
  • Flame cells remove excess water from the body
    (excretory)

26
Worms and Mollusks
  1. Ganglia group of nerve cells (no brain) (nervous
    system)
  2. Eyespots can detect changes in amount of light
  3. Most reproduce sexually are hermaphrodites have
    both male and female reproductive organs

27
Platyhelminthes
28
Worms and Mollusks
  • Groups
  • 1.Turbellarians- flatworms (planarians)
  • - Most live in marine or fresh water
  • 2. Flukes- parasitic flatworms that infect
    internal organs of host
  • Blood fluke Schistosoma lives in multiple hosts
    during life cycle (human and snail)
  • Affects millions worldwide in areas that lack
    proper sewage systems

29
Flukes
30
Worms and Mollusks
  • Tapeworms
  • Adapted to life inside intestines of host attach
    with scolex head with suckers or hooks.

31
Tapeworms
32
Worms and Mollusks
  • Phylum Nemotoda- unsegmented worms (roundworms)
  • Roundworms and Human Diseases
  • Trichinella- reproduce in host and larvae burrow
    themselves into organs causing terrible pain.

33
Roundworms
Trichinella
34
Worms and Mollusks
  • 2. Filarial worms
  • (mostly in tropical regions of Asia) that live in
    the lymph vessels and cause elephantiasis, which
    causes extreme swelling.

35
Filarial worms
36
Worms and Mollusks
  • 3. Ascarid worms cause malnutrition in more than
    1 billion people worldwide absorbs digested food
    from humans, horses, cattle, dogs, pigs,
    chickens humans get it from unclean vegetables
    not properly washed.

37
Ascarid Worms
38
Worms and Mollusks
  • 4. Hookworms- ¼ of the people in the world are
    infected eggs develop in soil and when
    unprotected foot comes into contact it uses sharp
    tooth like plates and hook to burrow into skin
    and eventually to intestines where they suck
    blood and cause weakness and poor growth.

39
Hookworms
40
Worms and Mollusks
  • Phylum Annelida- segmented worms (earthworms and
    leeches)
  • Form and Function- have complex organ systems
  • 1. crop- to store food and gizzard to grind it
    up
  • 2. closed circulatory system- blood is contained
    within blood vessels
  • 3. have a brain and nerve cords.

41
Worms and Mollusks
  • B. Groups
  • 1. Earthworms- common in woods, gardens aerate
    soil.
  • 2. Leeches- external parasites that suck blood
    and body fluids of host used medically to reduce
    swelling or for reattaching body parts can suck
    up to 5 times its weight secrete anesthetic so
    host does not know its there. Also, in its
    saliva is a fluid that prevents clotting of blood.

42
Annelids
43
Worms and Mollusks
  • Phylum Mollusca- snails, slugs, clams, squid,
    octopus.
  • Form and Function
  • 1. snails and slugs feed with radula tongue
    with hundreds of tiny teeth
  • 2. siphon tubelike structure where water enters
    and leaves the body
  • 3. closed or open circulatory system (blood not
    always in vessels).

44
Worms and Mollusks
  • B. Groups
  • 1. Gastropods- snails, slugs. Shell-less or
    single shelled that move with muscular foot on
    ventral side.
  • 2. Bivalves- clams, oysters, mussels, scallops
    (have 2 shells)
  • 3. Cephalopods- octopi, squid, nautilus. Head
    is attached to foot which may be divided into
    tentacles or arms.

45
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46
Arthropods and Echinoderms
47
Arthropods and Echinoderms
  • Phylum Arthrpoda- insects, crabs, centipedes and
    spiders.
  • What are they?
  • 1. segmented body tough exoskeleton made of
    chitin
  • 2. jointed appendages structures such as legs
    or antennae that extend from the body.

48
Arthropods and Echinoderms
  • B. Form and Function
  • 1. open circulatory system with well developed
    heart
  • 2. well developed nervous system with brain
    cephalization.
  • 3. when they outgrow their skeleton, they molt
    sheds exoskeleton and makes a new one.

49
Arthropods and Echinoderms
  • C. Groups
  • 1. Crustaceans- crabs, shrimp, lobster,
    barnacles, pill bugs.
  • Two pairs of antennae, 2 or 3 body sections, and
    chewing mouthpieces called mandibles.

50
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51
Arthropods and Echinoderms
  • 2. Chelicerates- horseshoe crab, spiders, ticks,
    scorpions
  • Chelicerae fangs used to stab and paralyze
    (spider)
  • Pedipalps longer than chelicerae used to grab
    prey (scorpion)
  • Spiders dont have jaws, so must liquefy food to
    swallow it.
  • Ticks can transmit bacteria that cause Rocky
    Mountain Spotted Fever or Lyme disease
  • Scorpion pedipalps are enlarged into claws found
    in Southern US venomous stinger kills or
    paralyzes prey and can chew their prey.

52
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53
Arthropods and Echinoderms
  • 3. Uniramia- centipedes, millipedes
  • jaws, one pair of antennae, unbranched appendages
  • Centipedes- up to 100 pairs of legs one pair of
    legs per segment carnivorous with poisonous
    mouthparts.
  • Millipedes- two pairs of legs per segment feed
    on dead plants

54
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55
Arthropods and Echinoderms
  • 4. Insects- bees, ants, beetles, butterfly
  • Body divided into head, thorax, abdomen
  • Three pairs of legs attached to thorax
  • Types of metamorphosis
  • Incomplete gradual change (immature form looks
    like adult)
  • Complete dramatic change (immature form looks
    nothing like adult)
  • - Some insect groups work as societies

56
Types of Metamorphosis
Direct development
Indirect development
Complete
Incomplete
57
Echinodermata
58
Arthropods and Echinoderms
  • Phylum Echinodermata- sea urchin, sea stars, sand
    dollars
  • Spiny skin, internal skeleton, water vascular
    system, suction cuplike structures called tube
    feet
  • Sea urchins help control distribution of algae
  • Sea stars are predators that control numbers of
    clams and corals
  • Crown of thorns is poisonous and feeds on coral.
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