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Equine Breeds

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Equine Breeds Equine Science & Technology Equine Breeds Tennessee Walking Horse Early settlers from Virginia brought the sturdy original saddle stock to Tennessee. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Equine Breeds


1
Equine Breeds
  • Equine Science Technology

2
Essential Questions
  • Why did horse breeders start with foundation
    stallions?
  • What is the common height measurement for horses?
  • What does it mean when you use the term
    warmblood, coldblood, cob, and hack?
  • How are mules produced?
  • What are the common breeds of donkeys?
  • What are six uses for mules, miniature donkeys
    and horses, and horses?
  • What is the origin of a feral horse?
  • What are 5 common breeds and origins of ponies,
    draft horses, and light horses?
  • How do you determine what is a breed, type, or
    classification?

3
Equine Breeds
  • Feral- a horse that was once domesticated and has
    become wild.
  • A breed of horse may be defined as a group of
    horses having a common origin and possessing
    certain well-fixed distinctive, uniformly
    transmitted characteristics that are not common
    to other horses.

4
Equine Breeds
  • Draft horses are large and usually 14 to over 17
    hands in height and over 1,500 lb. in weight.
  • They are sometimes referred to as cold-blood
    horses.
  • The term refers to the quiet, calm temperament of
    these breeds.

5
Equine Breeds
  • Draft Horse Breeds
  • Belgian
  • The Belgian breed originated in Belgium.
  • Directly descended from the Old Flemish ancestry.
  • Bay, chestnut, and roan are the most common
    colors.
  • The Belgian is noted for its draftiness, being
    the widest, deepest, most compact, most massive,
    and lowest set of any draft breed.

6
Equine Breeds
  • Clydesdale
  • This Scotch breed of draft horse derives its name
    from the valley of the River Clyde, located in
    Scotland.
  • Weight ranges from 1,600 to 2,400 lbs. and stands
    from 16 to 19 hands in height.
  • The breed is known for a moderate amount of fine
    feather or long hair at the rear of the legs
    below the knees and hocks.

7
Equine Breeds
  • Clydesdale
  • Bay and brown, with white markings are the most
    characteristic colors.

8
Equine Breeds
  • Percheron
  • The Percheron originated in northwestern France,
    in the ancient district of La Perche.
  • Most Percherons are black or gray, with an
    occasional bay or chestnut.
  • Percheron is noted for its handsome clean-cut
    head, excellent temperament, and longevity.

9
Equine Breeds
  • Shire
  • The Shire breed originated on the low, marshy
    lands of East central England.
  • The great size and bulk of this breed are derived
    directly from the Great Horse of the Middle Ages.
  • The Shire is taller than any other draft breed.
  • Common colors are bay, brown, and black with
    white markings.

10
Equine Breeds
  • A light horse is usually 12 to 17 hands in height
    and weighs 900 to 1,400 lbs. They are usually
    used for riding, showing, and racing.
  • A pony, on the other hand is smaller, usually
    less than 14.2 hands and weighing 500 to 900 lbs.

11
Equine Breeds
  • Pony Breeds
  • Haflinger
  • Shetland
  • Welsh Pony
  • Dales Pony
  • Exmoor Pony

Exmoor Pony
Dales Pony
Haflinger
12
Equine Breeds
  • American Walking Pony
  • Breed originated near Macon, Georgia from a
    foundation cross of Tennessee Walking Horse and
    Welsh Pony.
  • Used for pleasure riding and as mounts for
    children and small adults.
  • All colors accepted.

13
Equine Breeds
  • Shetland Pony
  • Native to the Shetland Islands, which lie 100
    miles north of Scotland.
  • One of the oldest breeds in existence
  • All colors accepted.

14
Equine Breeds
  • Light Horse Breeds
  • Akhal-Teke
  • American Crème Horse
  • American Curly
  • American Mustang
  • American Walking Pony
  • American Warmblood

Akhal-Teke
American Mustang
15
Equine Breeds
  • Light Horse Breeds
  • Appaloosa
  • Arabian
  • Buckskin
  • Cleveland Bay
  • Cracker Horse
  • Dutch Warmblood

Arabian
Buckskin
Cleveland Bay
16
Equine Breeds
  • Light Horse Breeds
  • Hackney
  • Lipizzan
  • Miniature Horse
  • Missouri Fox Trotter
  • Morab
  • Morgan
  • Norwegian Fjord

Lipizzan
Morgan
Norwegian Fjord
17
Equine Breeds
  • Light Horse Breeds
  • Paint
  • Palomino
  • Paso Fino
  • Pinto
  • Pony of the Americas
  • Quarter Horse
  • Saddlebred

Paso Fino
Saddlebred
18
Equine Breeds
  • Light Horse Breeds
  • Selle Francais
  • Standardbred
  • Dan Patch Story
  • Tennessee Walking Horse
  • Thoroughbred
  • Trakehner

Selle Francais
19
Equine Breeds
  • The males of the ass family are called jacks, and
    the females jennets.
  • Asses are also commonly known as donkeys, burros,
    or jackstock.
  • Long-Eared Breeds
  • Mammoth Ass
  • Standard Donkey
  • Miniature Donkey
  • Mule

Miniature Donkey
20
Equine Breeds
  • Appaloosa
  • Originated in the United States- in Oregon,
    Washington, and Idaho from animals that first
    came from Central Asia.
  • Ancestors of the Appaloosa were introduced into
    Mexico by the early Spanish explorers.
  • For many years Appaloosa horses were owned by the
    Nez Perce.

21
Equine Breeds
  • Appaloosa
  • Appaloosas may be black, bay, brown, chestnut,
    white with dark spots over the loin and hips,
    white with dark spots over the entire body, or
    mottled dark and white, or with white spots over
    a dark body.
  • The eye is encircled by a white sclera, and the
    hooves are stripped vertically black and white.

22
Equine Breeds
  • Arabian
  • The foundation stock of the Arabian horse was
    obtained from either the Egyptians or the Libyan
    tribes of northern Africa.
  • Oldest breed of horses, and the foundation head
    of all other light horse breeds.
  • Develop in the desert country of Arabia.
  • The Arabian breed is medium to small in size, has
    a beautiful head and great endurance.

23
Equine Breeds
  • Arabian
  • Predominating colors are bay, gray, and chestnut,
    with an occasional white or black.

24
Equine Breeds
  • Morgan
  • Known as the first family of American horses.
  • The early development of the breed took place in
    the New England states.
  • Standard colors are bay, brown, black, chestnut
    and white markings are not uncommon.
  • The breed is noted for easy keeping qualities
    stamina, docility, beauty, courage, and
    longevity.
  • Morgan blood was used in laying the foundation of
    many breeds.

25
Equine Breeds
  • Quarter Horse
  • Quarter horses originated in the United States.
  • The Quarter horse is an ideal stock horse.
  • The most predominant colors of the breed are
    chestnut, sorrel, bay, and dun. Palominos,
    blacks, browns, and roans are not uncommon.

26
Equine Breeds
  • Quarter Horse
  • Animals are disqualified for registration if they
    have paint, pinto, appaloosa, or albino coloring.

27
Equine Breeds
  • Thoroughbred
  • The history of the thoroughbred had its beginning
    in the 17th century, though the original lineage
    of the breed is as old as civilization.
  • All U.S. Thoroughbreds are registered in the
    Jockey Club, established in 1894. Membership in
    the club is by election.
  • Thoroughbreds are bay, brown, chestnut, black, or
    less frequently gray.

28
Equine Breeds
  • Thoroughbred
  • About one-third of the nations Thoroughbreds are
    bred in Kentucky.
  • Racing and the unquestioned value of the
    Thoroughbred for crossbreeding purposes assure
    the breed a bright future.

29
Equine Breeds
  • Paint Horse
  • The paint horse represents a combination of
    breeding, conformation and color.
  • Paint horses originated in the United States.
  • Paint horses are distinguished by two color
    patterns- they must either be overo or tobiano.
  • Most tobianos have color on the head, chest and
    flanks and some in the tail. The legs are nearly
    always white.

30
Equine Breeds
  • Paint Horse
  • The overo often has jagged or lacy-edged white
    markings, mostly on the midsection of the body
    and neck area.

Overo
Tobiano
31
Equine Breeds
  • Buckskin
  • Buckskin horses originated in the United States
    largely from horses of Spanish extraction.
  • Buckskin is a shade of yellow that may range from
    gold to nearly brown-dun, red dun, or grulla
    (mouse dun).
  • The Buckskin is primarily a color breed with no
    particular type favored.

32
Equine Breeds
  • Palomino
  • The word palomino implies a horse of a golden
    color, with white, silver, or ivory mane and
    tail.
  • Originally, Palominos were not considered either
    a breed or a type but simply as a color.
  • Palomino horses originated in the United States
    from animals of Spanish extraction.

33
Equine Breeds
  • Palomino
  • Palominos are used as a stock, parade, pleasure,
    saddle, and fine harness horses.

34
Equine Breeds
  • Tennessee Walking Horse
  • Early settlers from Virginia brought the sturdy
    original saddle stock to Tennessee.
  • The breed represents an amalgamation of the
    Thoroughbred, Standardbred, Morgan, and American
    Saddlebred breeds.
  • A great array of colors exists, including sorrel,
    chestnut, black, roan, white, bay, brown, gray,
    and golden.

35
Equine Breeds
  • Tennessee Walking Horse
  • An ideal horse for the amateur or the person who
    rides infrequently.

36
Equine Breeds
  • Miniature Horse
  • The miniature horse is a small model of a full
    sized horse it is not a dwarf.
  • Miniatures horses were used in England and
    Northern Europe to pull ore carts in the coal
    mines as early as 1765.
  • They were also bred as pets for some of the royal
    families of Europe.
  • Miniature horses cannot exceed 34 in. in height
    at the withers.

37
Equine Breeds
  • Miniature Horse
  • All colors are accepted.

38
Equine Gaits
  • A gait is a particular way of going, either
    natural or acquired which is characterized by a
    distinctive rhythmic movement of the feet and
    legs.
  • Walk
  • A natural slow, flat footed, four beat gait.
  • It should be springy, regular, and true.

39
Equine Gaits
  • Trot
  • A natural two-beat, diagonal gait in which the
    front foot and the opposite hind foot take off at
    the same split second and strike the ground
    simultaneously.
  • There is a brief moment when all four feet are
    off the ground and the horse seemingly floats
    through the air.
  • This gait varies considerably according to breed
    and training.

40
Equine Gaits
  • Canter (Lope)
  • The canter is a slow, restrained, three-beat gait
    in which the two diagonal legs are paired,
    thereby producing a single beat that falls
    between the successive beats of the other
    unpaired legs.
  • In the show-ring the lead should be toward the
    inside of the ring. Thus when traveling to the
    left, the front leg should lead (the horse is on
    the left lead).

41
Equine Gaits
  • Run (Gallop)
  • The run or gallop is a fast, four beat gait in
    which the feet strike the ground separately-
    first one hind foot then the other hind foot
    then the front foot on the same side as the first
    hind foot then the other front foot, which
    decided the lead.
  • In executing the gallop, the propulsion is
    chiefly in the hindquarters.

42
Equine Gaits
  • Pace
  • The pace is a fast, lateral two-beat gait in
    which the front and hind feet on the same side
    start and stop simultaneously.
  • The feet rise very little above the ground.
  • The pace is faster than the trot but not so fast
    as the run or gallop.

43
Equine Gaits
  • Movement Defects
  • The feet of an animal should move straight ahead
    and parallel to a centerline drawn in the
    direction of travel any deviations from this way
    of going constitute defects.
  • Forging
  • The striking of the forefoot by the toe of the
    hind foot.

44
Equine Gaits
  • Movement Defects
  • Paddling
  • Throwing the front feet outward as they are
    picked up.
  • This condition is predisposed in horses with
    toe-narrow or pigeon-toed standing positions.

45
Equine Gaits
  • Pounding
  • A condition in which there is a heavy contact
    with the ground in contrast to the desired light,
    springy movement.
  • Defects in conformation that shift the horses
    center of gravity can lead to pounding.
  • Rolling
  • Excessive lateral shoulder motion, characteristic
    of horses with protruding shoulders.
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