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Prof. N. T. Kim Oanh

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Agroresidue for biomass briquettes/pellets: clean cooking and less open burning. Briquetting: loose biomass residues (sawdust, straw or rice husk) are converted into ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Prof. N. T. Kim Oanh


1
High Level Sub-regional Consultation on Advancing
Action on SLCPs in Southeast and Northeast
Asia 19 August 2014, Bangkok, Thailand
  • Prof. N. T. Kim Oanh
  • Facilitator kimoanh_at_ait.ac.th

2
Source IPCC AR (2013)
3
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4
Short-lived climate forcers
  • Short life spans
  • Warming agents black carbon (soot particles),
    methane, tropospheric ozone, and HCFs
  • Cooling agents sulfate, nitrate particles,
    organic carbon (OC)
  • These are also toxic air pollutants to human
    health and ecosystem ? short-lived climate
    forcing pollutants (SLCPs)

5
SLCP and GWP (on mass-basis)
Species Life time GWP, 20 years Additional concern Emission sources
CO2 100 yrs 1 None Combustion
CH4 12 yrs 62 O3 production Agriculture, ruminants, landfill, mining, etc.
Trop. O3 days to weeks - Crop and health effects Formed in atmosphere (VOC, NOx, CO)
VOC days 4.9 O3 production Health effects Various sources (combustion, evap., etc.)
BC days 2000 Health effects Incomplete combustion (diesel, cookstoves, etc.)
HFCs, HCFCs years gt200 yrs 500-9000 ODS AC, refrigerators, industry (foam, aluminium)
Source IPCC (1990, 1995, 1996) Bond et al.
(2004)
6
SLCPs from Agricultural Sector
  • Emission of SLCP from agricultural activities
  • Potential co-benefit and opportunities of
    co-control in agricultural sector in Asia

Kim Oanh, 2013
7
Emission from agricultural sector
Sub-category covered Relevant species Remarks Global (Tg/year)
1. Rice cultivation CH4 CH4 emission from anaerobic process (methanogenic bacteria) 36.5
2. Live-stock management 2. Live-stock management 2. Live-stock management 2. Live-stock management
a. Enteric fermentation CH4 CH4 as by-product of livestock digestive process 99
b. Manure management CH4 NH3 and N2O CH4 from decomposition of manure during storage and application N2O and NH3 from excess N content in manure through the N cycle CH4 11.4 NH316.5 N2O 2.3
3. Soil 3. Soil 3. Soil 3. Soil
a. Fertilizer/urea application NH3 N-fertilizer application (volatile to air) 22.5
b. Direct emission from managed soil N2O, NOx Increase in available N enhances nitrification/denitrification ? emission N2O 2.6 NOx 4.6
c. Liming application CO2 Due to addition of lime for soil treatment 111
8
GHG and air pollution from agricultural sector
Sub-category covered Relevant pollutants Remarks Global (Tg/year)
4. Biomass open burning 4. Biomass open burning 4. Biomass open burning 4. Biomass open burning
a. Crop residue open burning Combustion products SO2, NOx, CO, NH3, NMVOC, PM10, PM2.5, BC, OC, CO2, CH4, N2O Field burning of crop residue burned after harvest BC 0.9 OC 4.25
b. Forest fire (related to agro activities) Combustion products SO2, NOx, CO, NH3, NMVOC, PM10, PM2.5, BC, OC, CO2, CH4, N2O Open burning of vegetation biomass and peat soil in forests BC2.4 OC 20.75
5. Agriculture machinery (tractors etc.) Combustion products SO2, NOx, CO, NH3, NMVOC, PM10, PM2.5, BC, OC, CO2, CH4, N2O Fossil fuel combustion in agricultural machineries NA
Other sources land-use change (forest ? crop
land ? urban areas)
Extracted from EDGAR for 2007
Kim Oanh, 2013
9
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12
Agricultural measure
Agriculture CH4 control emission from livestock
(anaerobic digestion of cattle and pig manure)
and aeration of flooded paddy) BC ban field
burning
Percentage change in anthropogenic emissions of
pollutants in 2030 relative to 2005 in scenarios
of CH4 , BC and CH4 BC measures applications
Kim Oanh, 2013
13
Agro-residue field burning
  • Deliberate burning of various types of crop
    residue that occurs on-site (field) Rice straw,
    Corn, Cassava, Groundnut/soil bean, Cotton/jute,
    Potato, Sorghum, others
  • Purpose for faster crop rotation and to ease the
    harvesting (e.g. sugarcane)
  • Increasing trend burning is projected to
    increase in the short and medium terms

Kim Oanh, 2014
14
Large emission from agro-residue field burning
  • Uncontrolled and largely incomplete combustion
    large emission
  • Pollutants PM with BC OC and gases (CO, NOx,
    VOC, SO2, NH3, etc.), semi-VOC pesticides, PAHs,
    dioxins
  • Climate forcers CO2, BC, OC, CH4, and ozone
    precursors (NOx, HC, CO)
  • Large amount of emission from crop residue field
    burning in Asia but is not well quantified

15
Rice straw field burning in Asia and emission,
Gg/y
Pollutants India Philippine Thailand China Indonesia
RS burned, Tg 13.9 10.2 20.3 24.1 43.5
Portion burned of total RS 14 95 68 24 84
CO2 16,253 11,850 15,360 18,952 52,614
PM2.5 144 105 108 330
BC OC 6.5 39 22 132
CH4 13.4 9.7 125 382
NMHC 44.5 32.5 91 304
CO 386 282 1,210 1,538 7,172
N2O 0.78 0.57 3
NOx 35 25 29.7 43.5 89
PAH 0.21 0.15
Sources Gadde et al. 2009 Kanabkaew and Kim
Oanh, 2010 Zhang et al. 2008 Permadi and Kim
Oanh, 2012
Kim Oanh, 2014
16
Kim Oanh, 2013
17
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18
Policy approaches for field burning emission
control
  • Command and control (CAC) ban/restriction
  • Market based instruments (MBI)
  • Subsidy on appropriate technologies/equipment for
    harvesting and residue collection
  • Markets for the collected residue bring in
    additional income to farmers from selling it
  • Educative/persuasive
  • Raising awareness health effects of burning
    smoke, mushroom farming
  • Good practices of sustainable residue management
  • Community participatory to promote non-burning

19
Emission reduction of field burning
  • Develop and implement non-burning alternatives of
    residue
  • Change in harvesting technologies
  • Onsite treatment (incorporate crop residue)
  • Develop methods for residue collection
  • Burn only when it is dry and good dispersion

Kim Oanh, 2013
20
NON-BURNING AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES IN THAILAND
(by Dares Kittiyopas, UNEP meeting, 2014)
Utilization of crop residue
  • Development of soil preparation incorporate
    crop residue
  • Used Microbial Activator Super LDD2 to
    accelerate the decomposition of crop residue

21
Others measures used in Thailand
  • Produce of the organic fertilizer (organic
    compost)
  • Used as animal fodder, or renewable energy
  • Other purpose soil mulching material in
    vegetable production
  • Educative and regulation (banning)

Source Dares Kittiyopas (2014)
22
Agroresidue for biomass briquettes/pellets clean
cooking and less open burning
  • Briquetting loose biomass residues (sawdust,
    straw or rice husk) ? are converted into high
    density solid blocks
  • Biomass briquettes/pellets (very small
    briquettes) used for cooking and industrial
    combustion 
  • Sawdust and other woody residues have lignin ?
    good for briquetting
  • Dry agricultural residues can be used alone but
    work better when mixed with woody materials.

23
Thank You!
24
Facilitator/discussion
  • An introduction to reducing SLCPs in the
    agricultural sector (approx. twenty minutes)
  • Taking question and answers about experiences
    with SLCPs in the agricultural sector in Asia
    (approx. ten minutes)
  • A facilitated discussion of experiences, lessons,
    and good practices with participants (approx..
    one hour)
  • A facilitated synthesis over the key findings
    from the discussion with ideas for the way
    forward (approx.. thirty minutes) and
  • Nominating a rapporteur to report findings back
    to the plenary

25
Discussion points
  1. Specific sources and SLCPs to be priority of
    control in Asia
  2. Experiences with SLCPs in the agricultural
    sector in Asia
  3. Challenges and lessons learned
  4. Good practices

26
Suggestions from the Group!
  • Suggestions on actions and implementation plans
    at national and regional level
  • Suggestions on stakeholder engagement from
    inception to implementation
  • Suggestions on cross-linkages with other CCAC
    initiatives
  • Waste management (agricultural wastes)
  • Household cooking and domestic heating
    (agroresidue to fuel)
  • Agroresidue waste management strategies
  • Financing mitigation of SLCPs (financing for
    improved agricultural practices) etc.
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