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Teacher Assistants

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Title: Teacher Assistants


1
Teacher Assistants
2
Foundations
  • North Carolina Early Learning Standards
  • Widely Held Expectations
  • Approaches to Learning
  • Emotional and Social
  • Physical and Health
  • Language and Communication
  • Cognitive

3
Foundations
  • Guiding Principals
  • Each child is unique.
  • Development occurs in predictable patterns.
  • 4 year olds are active learners
  • Many factors influence a childs development
  • Children with disabilities learn best in an
    inclusive environment

4
Foundations
  • Active Learning
  • learning to learn
  • Importance of Environment
  • Making connections across domains
  • Imprinting a positive attitude toward learning

5
Approaches to Learning
  • Children begin to
  • Draw on everyday experiences and apply it to new
    situations
  • Demonstrate an eagerness in learning while
    playing, listening, questioning and interacting
  • Use multiple senses to explore

6
Social/Emotional
  • Children begin to
  • Show self-confidence
  • Use pretend play to express thoughts and feelings
  • Show persistence
  • Enjoy playing alone or near others
  • Follow simple classroom rules
  • Interact easily with familiar children and adults

7
Health and Physical
  • Children begin to
  • Increase independence of self help skills
  • Help care for the environment (pick up toys, wipe
    tables)
  • Take care of own belongings

8
Physical
  • Children begin to
  • Gain control of small and large muscles
  • Uses pincer grasp to hold crayons or pencils
  • Develop body strength, stamina, and balance
  • Develop eye-hand coordination through activities
    (blocks, play dough, puzzles, etc.)

9
Language
  • Children begin to
  • Understand increasingly complex sentences
  • Understand and use a growing vocabulary
  • Attend to language for longer periods of time
    (story time, conversations, etc.)
  • Comprehend and use language for multiple social
    and cognitive purposes

10
Communication
  • Children begin to
  • Initiate and engage in conversations
  • Use increasing complex language
  • Use language as part of pretend play

11
Cognitive
  • Children begin to
  • Use numbers and counting in play
  • Sort by 1 or 2 attributes
  • Recognize simple patterns and shapes
  • Understand the passage of time within their daily
    routines

12
Curriculum
  • Opening the World of Learning

13
OWL
  • The OWL acronym stands for
  • Opening the World of Learning
  • Developed by Pearson Early Learning
  • from authors Judy Schickendanz, Ph.D.
  • and David Dickinson, Ed. D. along with
  • CMS

14
OWL
  • Develops language and early literacy skills
  • Builds a foundation in mathematics, science, and
    social studies
  • Prepares every child to succeed
  • Provides a research- based and field- tested
    curriculum
  • Provides instruction for whole-group,
    small-group, and individual activities

15
Daily Components
  • Morning Meeting
  • Centers
  • Transitions
  • Story Time
  • Songs, Word Play, and Letters (SWPL)
  • Small Groups
  • Lets Find Out About It/ Lets Talk About It

16
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17
Study Units
  • Unit 1- Family
  • Unit 2- Friends
  • Unit 3- Wind and Water
  • Unit 4-The World of Color
  • Unit 5-Shadows and Reflections
  • Unit 6-Things That Grow

18
Teaching Materials
  • 6 Teachers Guides
  • OWL Program Guide
  • 48 Childrens Books
  • 100 full-color pictures
  • The Big Book of Poetry
  • A Sing-Along Songs and
  • Poems CD

19
Additional Teaching Materials
  • Evaluating Language and Literacy in Four- Year-
    Olds A Practical Guide for Teachers
  • Math Activity Aids
  • Preschool 4 Developmental Guidelines The Work
    Sampling System
  • A Professional Development DVD
  • Family Connections

20
Adaptation Resources
  • Adaptations for English Language Learners
  • Adaptations for Children with Special Needs
  • Adaptations for
  • Mixed-Aged Groups

21
Morning Meeting
  • Short meeting before Center Time to demonstrate
    centers to children.
  • Sets the stage for
  • the day, especially
  • Center Time.
  • Enables children to make informed center choices
    and use center activities purposefully

22
Sample Morning Meeting
  • Welcome
  • Preview the Day
  • Center Materials Demonstration/s
  • Simple Modeled Writing
  • Transition to Centers

23
What do you think is MISSING from Morning Meeting?
  • Calendar
  • Helpers
  • Weather

24
  • Morning Meeting sets the stage for the day!

25
Story Time
  • Central to the OWL Curriculum
  • Purposeful and planned
  • Whole group, 20 minutes daily
  • High quality childrens literature
  • Multiple reads

26
First Read Introduction
  • Introduce key vocabulary
  • Build comprehension
  • Use think aloud strategy
  • Maintain the flow of the story

27
Second Read Reconstruction
  • Guide the reconstruction of the story as the
    book is read
  • Prompt children to recall events and sequence
    with questions as the story is read
  • Ask questions that support comprehension
  • Enrich and review vocabulary from 1st read

28
Third Read Chime In
  • Invite all children to chime in with key
    storybook text.
  • Provide prompts as needed.
  • Ask questions about characters thoughts,
    feelings, and actions.
  • What are the reasons for them?
  • How they relate to story events?
  • How do they relate to childs experiences?

29
Fourth Read Dramatization
  • Invite children to participate actively
  • Assign speaking parts to all children
  • or
  • Choose an alternate book if a fourth read is not
    appropriate

30
Story Time Format
  • Summary of the story and link to unit theme
  • Purpose
  • Read the Story/Story Discussion
  • Suggested Vocabulary Definitions
  • ELL suggestions and Extensions

31
Story Time Model
  • Cover Introduction
  • Model (not a script)
  • Story Discussion
  • Transition activity

32
Prepare for Story Time Reading
  1. Read the story ahead of time.
  2. Review the Purposes, Vocabulary and Guidance in
    the Teachers Guide
  3. Choose which vocabulary words you will explain.
  4. Read the Story Time Model in the Teachers Guide.
  5. Plan your own read.
  6. Practice out loud until you are confident.

33
Making Story Time Work
  • Remember the Story time model in the Teachers
    Guide is a model, NOT a script.
  • Consider your childrens background knowledge and
    interest in the book.
  • Prepare-prepare-prepare
  • ENJOY the book!

34
Songs, Word Play, and Letters (SWPL)
  • Whole Group activity (songs, poems, literacy
    games)
  • Purpose To develop phonological awareness
  • Enjoyable
  • About 20 minutes every day

35
Songs, Word Play, and Letters Activities
(SWPL)
  • Songs Five Green and Speckled Frogs
  • Word Play
  • Poems Diddle Diddle Dumpling
  • Predictable Books Over in the Meadow
  • Letters (Literacy Skills)
  • Alphabet Memory Pocket Game
  • Im Thinking of ____ Clue Game

36
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37
Early Literacy Skills in SWPL
  • Phonological awareness
  • Syllables
  • Rhyme
  • Beginning sounds
  • Phonemic awareness
  • Blending
  • Segmenting
  • Substituting
  • Alphabet knowledge
  • Uppercase and lowercase letters
  • Print awareness
  • Poems and predictable books
  • Vocabulary
  • New story words

38
SWPL Phonological Awareness
  • Phonological Awareness
  • the ability to attend to sounds of speech
  • No letters, just sounds
  • Phonemic awareness
  • speech is made up of a sequence of small units of
    sound phonemes the ability to manipulate
    those sounds
  • No Letters, just sounds

39
What is the difference?
  • Developmental progression
  • from large units of speech
  • (phonological awareness)
  • to the small units of speech
  • (phonemic awareness)

40
Successful SWPL
  • Songs, poems, and other activities
  • PLAY with sound, print, and letters.
  • This is not drill.
  • SWPL should be
  • engaging and FUN!

41
SONGS, WORD PLAY AND LETTERS
42
SWPL Format
Use the unit curriculum guide and read
carefully and completely!
  • List of songs, Word Play Letter activities for
    each day
  • Purposes combined for the entire component
  • Suggested sequence
  • Description of activities Look for little
    changes used for important learning

43
Centers
44
  • The purpose of centers is to allow the
  • children to have first hand contact
  • with many materials, to explore and
  • experiment, and to learn to conduct
  • themselves appropriately in a group of peers.

45
4 Center Times
  • Start the Day Centers
  • 30 minutes at arrival. Only a few centers open.
  • 2. Center Time
  • about 60 minutes in morning
  • 3. Lunch/Quiet Time/Centers
  • 10 minutes after lunch. Also may only open a
    few
  • 4. End the Day Centers
  • 20 minutes at departure. Only a few centers
    open

46
Classroom Centers
  • Book Area
  • Writing Center
  • Art Area Table and Easel
  • Sand and Water
  • Puzzles and Manipulatives (math too!)
  • Blocks
  • Dramatic Play Area

47
BOOK AREA
48
Writing Center
49
Art Table and Easel
50
SAND AND WATER TABLES
51
BLOCK CENTER
52
DRAMATIC PLAY CENTER
53
Additional Areas in the Classroom
  • A large group area
  • Tables for small group activities
  • A quiet/cozy area
  • A science center
  • Cubby space for students belongings
  • Teacher space for belongings
  • Computer area
  • Music area

54
Start-the-Day Centers
  • When During arrival time
  • Time Approx. 30 minutes
  • The children engage in self-selected activities
  • Materials selected are easily cleaned up.

55
End-the-Day Centers
  • When During staggered dismissal time and as
    children prepare to go home.
  • Time Approx. 20 minutes
  • The children engage in self-selected activities.
  • Materials selected are easily cleaned up.

56
LUNCH/QUIET TIME/CENTERS
  • When
  • Purpose
  • Quiet/Independent
  • ECERS
  • REMINDER

57
Guidelines for Center Time
  • Time
  • OWL
  • Quantity
  • Additional activities
  • Diversity
  • KEYS TO SUCCESS
  • Adults

58
Planning for Centers
  • Program Guide gives overview, pp. 12-13
  • Teachers Guide provides descriptions of
    activities for each week
  • Materials
  • Preparation
  • Vocabulary
  • Interaction Guidance

59
Center Reminders
  • Define areas
  • Neat and logical organization
  • Easily accessible
  • Display
  • Arrangement
  • Materials

60
  • These signs can be posted in your designated
    center areas. The bottom of each card has plenty
    of space to allow for hooks, velcro, or any other
    system of posting student tags for check-in.

Center Area Signs
61
Managing Center Time
  • ALLOW
  • Transitions
  • Establish a system
  • Teach and re-teach
  • Floater
  • Clean-up

62
  • Remember the tone of the classroom environment
    is nurturing and supportive.

63
Interactions
  • In the Classroom

64
Adult-Child Interactions
  • Positive, pleasant tone
  • Aware of whole group even when working with one
    child
  • Talk is related to childrens play
  • Extend thinking and add information
  • Let children explore and discover

65
Interactions
  • Warm and nurturing
  • Respectful
  • Expectations
  • Reasonable and appropriate for age
  • Supportive
  • Help children solve problems
  • Positive
  • Walk, please rather than dont run.

66
Supervision
  • Careful supervision indoors and outdoors
  • Aware of whole group even when working with one
    child
  • Circulate on playground and among center areas
  • Concentrate on children rather than housekeeping
    tasks.
  • Quickly finish necessary tasks.
  • Minimize time away from classrooms.
  • Cell phone and computer before and after school.

67
Conversations
  • When?
  • Centers
  • Meals and Snack
  • Arrival and Dismissal
  • Playground

68
Conversations
  • What?
  • Events at school and at home
  • Play
  • Open ended Questions

69
Conversations
  • Why?
  • Builds relationships
  • Builds vocabulary
  • Builds oral language
  • Key to literacy

70
Teacher Assistants
  • Small Groups

71
Small Group Time
  • Class is divided into 3 groups
  • 6-7 children per group
  • Usually at tables
  • Lasts about 25 minutes

72
SMALL GROUP CHART
73
Small Groups
  • Activities include games,
  • writing, books, experiments
  • math activities, manipulatives
  • Provides hands-on experiences and focused
    instruction.
  • Each group participates in only ONE Small Group
    activity per day, for whole 25 minutes

74
Successful Small Groups
  • Be Prepared!
  • Monitoring independent small group
  • Expectations of childrens behavior
  • Grouping children appropriately
  • Book browsing and other options
  • Visibility of all 3 groups
  • Pacing of the activities
  • Absent adult 3 independent small groups

75
Lets Find Out About It and Lets
Talk About It
76
Highlights of LFOAI LTAI
  • Whole group activity (typically)
  • 20 minutes long
  • Themes - science and social studies related
  • Content - books read during Story Time lay the
    groundwork for specific kind of information text
  • Social-emotional development promoted through
    oral language and literacy discussions
  • LTAI is featured more towards the end of the
    year due to RECAP lessons.

77
Lets Find Out About It (Unit One)
  • Examples folding paper airplanes, science
    exploration, advertisements, recipes from
    cookbooks, game directions, birth announcements,
    etc.

Turn to page 30 for your first look at LFOAI.
78
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79
Where do I find LFOAI/LTAI resources for my
lessons?
  • Supplemental books - provided to support this
    component
  • Materials from home
  • Websites
  • Magazines
  • Local library
  • School library (if available)

80
This is my mother. This is my father. This is my
brother . . . tall. This is my sister. This is
the baby. Oh, how I love them all!
81
Recap
  • Reinforcing Positive Behavior
  • Teaching Appropriate Social Skills

82
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83
PURPOSE of RECAP
  • Teach children appropriate social skills
  • Teach children how to behave appropriately in
    social settings.
  • Give teachers a tool for teaching social skills
    and behavior management.

84
Putting it into Practice
  • Structure
  • Clear Expectations
  • Flexibility
  • Keep children Engaged in learning
  • Be Proactive

85
The RECAP Curriculum
  • Lessons Other Components
  • Friendly Skills Self-Esteem
  • Feelings Communication
  • Relaxation Positive Attention
  • Problem-solving Logical Consequences

86
One of the first lessons is . . .
FRIENDLY SKILLS
VS.
UNFRIENDLY SKILLS
87
Suns
  • Talk with your teacher about when to give out
    suns to children.
  • In general
  • When child demonstrates desired behavior (or even
    a part of the behavior)
  • Dont threaten.
  • Once given, dont take sun away.
  • Remember to follow through with reward when child
    has reached 5 Suns.

88
Behavior Management Helpful Vocabulary
  • Rational detachment
  • Positive reinforcement
  • Specific praise
  • Setting Limits
  • Logical Consequences
  • Corrective Feedback

89
Rational Detachment Crisis Prevention and
Intervention (CPI)
  • Rational detachment is the ability to stay calm
    and in controlto maintain your
    professionalismeven in a crisis moment.
  • It means not taking things personally.

90
Positive Reinforcement
  • Remain consistent
  • Give positive attention as soon as a positive
    behavior is observed
  • Give positive attention as often as possible when
    the behavior occurs

91
Tips for Focusing on the Positive
  • Use specific behavior praise to recognize and
    reinforce appropriate behavior. (intangible
    reinforcement)
  • Use suns to recognize and reinforce appropriate
    behavior. (tangible reinforcement)

92
Specific Praise
  • Happy Talk, Keep Talking Happy Talk!
  • Youre doing such a great job of listening to
    student name.
  • Look at you helping student name clean upwhat
    a friend!
  • Nice job of saying Thank You.
  • Wow, what a caring attitude!
  • Student name, everyone appreciates the way
    youre keeping your hands and feet to yourself!
  • Bravo for walking in a straight line.
  • Student name youre doing such a great job of
    staying in your seat while we are eating, thank
    you!
  • Student name, thank you for remembering to
    walk.

93
Setting Limits Crisis Prevention and Intervention
(CPI)
  • Step 1Explain to the child exactly which
    behavior is inappropriate.
  • Step 2Explain why the behavior is inappropriate.
  • Step 3Give reasonable choices or consequences.
  • Step 4Allow time.
  • Step 5Enforce consequences

94
Logical Consequences Target the Behavior, Not
the Child !!!
  • The behavior is what needs to change, not the
    child.
  • It is easier to change behaviors than to change a
    person.
  • Focusing on specific behaviors decreases the
    likelihood that the child will take it
    personally.
  • Focusing on solutions instead of punishment.

95
Consequence/Discipline Ideas
  • Redirection (verbal, physical, attention getting)
  • Reminders (verbal, physical)
  • Warnings
  • Think Time
  • Set Limits give child a choice to change
    behavior or to remove himself/herself from an
    activity
  • Set Limits give child a choice to comply
    w/request or choose a consequence
  • Corrective Feedback

96
Corrective Feedback
  • Feedback that is intended to help students
    correct their behavior or performance.
  • Feedback that teaches the child how to behave
    appropriately.
  • Feedback presented in such a way that the
    students can understand without becoming
    embarrassed, hurt, or angry.

97
RECAP Principles
  • Focus on the Positive!
  • Create clear, reasonable, and developmentally
    appropriate expectations.
  • Remain consistent and follow through.
  • Remain rationally detached when teaching desired
    behaviors through corrective feedback.
  • Recognize that our feelings affect our behavior.
  • Recognize that behavior is a choice.
  • Recognize that children and adults are
    responsible for our own behavior.

98
Expectations and Responsibilities
99
Before and After
  • Team Work!!
  • Plan with your teacher what you both will take
    care of before and after school.
  • Cleaning, Straightening, Paint, etc.
  • Center Prep Add supplies, etc.
  • Name tags

100
With Children
  • Take Home Reader
  • Folders
  • Lunch
  • Attendance
  • Finish as quickly as possible

101
Whole Group Times
  • Morning Meeting
  • Story Time
  • LFOAI/LTAI/Recap
  • Songs, Word Play, and Letters
  • Sit near back of group
  • Help with crowd control
  • Support children who need reminders
  • Speak quietly and/or use non-verbal signals

102
Small Groups
  • Study ahead of time the lesson for medium
    support group.
  • Teach lesson as directed from Pacing Guide.
  • Have materials ready!
  • Plan how you will introduce the activity to
    children.
  • Visually supervise independent group.
  • Plan a transition.
  • Reinforce good behavior with suns.

103
Center Time
  • Interact and Engage with children.
  • Ask open-ended questions about play.
  • Use appropriate vocabulary
  • As indicated from teachers guide
  • From current and past story book
  • High level names and action words
  • Complete sentences
  • Support and extend childs learning.
  • Guide through problem solving rather than
    telling.

104
Meals and Snacks
  • Walk with class in the hall - one person in front
    and the other at the rear
  • Count children before leaving the room. Check for
    stragglers.
  • Assist with meals, trays, utensils, milk
  • One adult at each end of the table.
  • Converse with children near you.

105
Quiet Time
  • Take Home Readers exchange quickly
  • Work with individual
  • Support children who are having difficulty
    settling down.

106
Outdoor Time
  • Accompany group to playground.
  • Remain with children.
  • Zone coverage
  • Circulate as needed
  • Support childrens efforts on equipment.
  • Converse with children.

107
Program Responsibilities
  • RESULTS assist teacher with observation and
    notes as needed
  • Planning
  • Assist with materials
  • Maintain and change centers as directed
  • Plan for your small group
  • Be familiar with daily lesson plans

108
Classroom Management
  • Reinforce positive behavior
  • Support childrens efforts to solve problems and
    conflicts
  • Refer to classroom rules
  • Assist with making transitions smooth and
    unregimented
  • send and receive

109
Interactions
  • Appropriate tone of voice and voice level. not
    too loud or too soft
  • Interact positively with children, parents, and
    other staff.
  • Supervise children at all times.
  • Circulate indoors and out as needed.
  • Interact with children especially during centers,
    meals, and outdoors.

110
Quiet Time
  • Maximum of 25 minutes
  • After 10 minutes, give children who are not
    sleeping a quiet activity
  • Adequate lighting (shades open, some lights on)
  • Use mats or towels
  • Everybody up after 25 minutes.
  • Let heavy sleepers rest an additional 15
    minutes.

111
Environment
  • Display childrens art and writing
  • Classroom should be child-centered
  • Classroom should be neat, clean, safe, and
    attractive.
  • Clean tables several times a day.
  • Sanitize at the end of the day.
  • Sanitize mats weekly.
  • Give hand washing reminders as needed.

112
  • Focus on Student Learning!
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