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History of Anatomy

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Title: History of Anatomy


1
History of Anatomy Physiology
2
What a piece of work is a man, how noble in
reason, how infinite in faculties, in form and
moving, how express and admirable in action, how
like an angel in apprehension, how like a god!
the beauty of the world the paragon of
animals  (Hamlet 2.2.315-319) William
Shakespeare
3
  • AP history
  • parallels that of medicine

4
Grecian period
  • AP widely accepted as a science.
  • Esteemed physical athletic competition
  • Expressed the beauty of the
    body in their art.

5
Hippocrates (460-337 BC)
  • Father of Medicine
  • Established principles
  • of medical practice
  • 1st to attribute diseases to natural
    causes rather than the displeasure of the gods
  • Used application and reason (theory and
    observation)

6
  • Recognized 4 body humors
  • (idea persisted for 200 years)
  • Sanguine liver
  • Choler-(yellow)/bile/gallbladder
  • Phlegm lungs
  • Melancholic (black bile) spleen
  • A healthy person had a balance of the four humors
    due to a healthy diet and an optimal environment

7
  • Believed disease was due to an imbalance of the
    humors
  • Used humoral theory as a diagnostic tool (in
    conjunction with clinical observation of
    symptoms)
  • The art (method) of medical practice is
    attributed to him
  • Did no dissections

8
  • Hippocratic oath
  • given to graduating medical students
  • legacy he established through thoughtful,
    rational, ethical, moral and compassionate
    patient care.

9
Aristotle (384-332 BC)
  • Pupil of Plato
  • made careful observations and classifications of
    many living things
  • (including humans)
  • Laid the foundation for the
    field of comparative anatomy in
    an effort to learn more about human
    systems

10
  • Wrote first known account of embryology (and
    pangenesis) that described development of chicken
    heart.
  • Helped refute idea of preformation
  • (sperm and egg contained miniature adults that
    grow during development)

11
  • Erroneously believed that heart was seat of
    intelligence
  • function of the brain bathed in fluid, was to
    cool blood pumped from the heart (contrary to
    Plato who thought brain was seat of feeling and
    thought).

12
  • First true anatomist
  • First to distinguish tendons from nerves
  • First to trace arterial blood pathways

13
Erasistratus (300 B.C.) father of
physiology (Alexandrian School in Egypt)
  • Authored book on causes of diseases
  • included observations of
    and relationships
    between the heart
    vessels, brain, and
    cranial nerves

14
  • noted the toxic effects of snake venom on various
    organs
  • described changes in the liver resulting from
    various diseases
  • Although many of his writings were scientific,
    some not Ex he believed cranial nerves carried
    animal spirits and muscles contracted because of
    distention by spirits.

15
  • Both Erasistatus and Herophilus were greatly
    criticized for vivisection. Herophilus (known
    as a butcher of men)
    dissected as many
    as 600 living
    persons, many for
    public
    demonstrations.

16
  • Herophilus first to document studies in
    neuroscience (cerebrum,
    cerebellum, sensory
    vs. motor nerves,
    cerebral
    ventricles,
    brain as a thinking
    organ)

17
  • Erasistratus
  • credited with the pneumatic theory describing
    heart as a pump.
  • Organs were served by arteries, veins and nerves

18
Roman Era
  • Stifled scientific advancements
  • set the stage for the Dark Ages (Middle Ages)
  • Interest shifted from theoretical to practical
  • Few dissections were done other than autopsies

19
  • Medicine was not preventative by treatment
    mostly soldiers wounded in battle.

20
  • Church played a big part in practice of medicine.
    Ex If a pregnant woman died, she could not be
    buried until the fetus was removed and baptized.

21
  • Claudius Galen (130-201 A.D.)
  • Best physician since Hippocrates
  • Did only 2 or 3 human dissections due to legal
    limitations
  • limited in knowledge by
    animal dissections

22
  • Very much an experimentalist
  • Ex
  • proved a pig heart continued to beat even though
    the nerve innervating it was cut
  • pig could no longer squeal if the vocal cord
    nerve was cut

23
  • Published over 130 medical articles which served
    as gospel medicine for 1500 years.
  • Correctly identified that arteries carried blood
    (not air as previously believed)

24
  • Helped to make connections between anatomical
    design and physiological function (structure
    implies function) ex. Diaphragm and its
    relationship to breathing.
  • Encouraged ongoing treatment and follow up of
    patients in order to discern efficacy of
    treatment
  • Erroneously thought liver, heart and brain
    injected animal spirits into veins to be
    transported throughout body

25
  • Middle Ages
  • 476 A.D. the fall of the Roman Empire
  • Lasted 1000 years
  • Dissections were completely outlawed, punishable
    by burning at the stake
  • Mysterious deaths were examined by inspection and
    palpation
  • A few autopsies were done during the plague in
    order to determine the cause of this dreadful
    disease

26
  • Ibn Sina (known as Avicenna) wrote over 400
    Arabic books in medicine, philosophy, and math.
  • Texts were leading authority until 6th century
  • Establishment of universities and specialized
    colleges within aided in field of anatomy
  • See http//www.mf.uni-lj.si/acta-apa/acta-apa-00-
    2/moroni-history.html
  • for info on Alessandro Achillini and
  • the University of Bologna

27
Renaissance 14-16 century
  • Characterized by a rebirth of science
  • Helped by development of moveable type and
    publication of many more books
  • Obtaining cadavers became a problem with the
    explosion of scientific inquiry
  • Medical students regularly practiced grave
    robbing until an official decree permitted the
    bodies of executed criminals to be used as
    specimens

28
  • Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) father of modern
    anatomy
  • Wrote the definitive anatomy book De Humani
    Corporis Fabrica which wasbeautifully
    illustrated and accurately described the
    various body systems and
    organs

29
  • book boldly challenged many of Galens
  • was bitterly confronted by so many Galen
    anatomists (his former teacher Sylvious included)
    that he destroyed much of his later unpublished
    work and ceased his dissections

30
  • 17th 18th Century
  • William Harvey (1578-1657) father of modern
    physiology
  • Wrote On the Movement of the
    Heart and Blood in Animals which proved the
    continuous circulation of
    blood within
    vessels
  • Had many of the same
    problems as Vesalius
    for many of the same
    reasons

31
  • Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)
  • A lens grinder who not only developed the
    microscope but also techniques for tissue
    examination, describing blood cells,
  • spermatozoa, and the
  • striped appearance of skeletal muscle.
  • The microscope helped
  • develop the etiology
  • of diseases and aided in
  • the discovery of the cure
    for some of them.

32
  • 19th-20th Century
  • Formation of the cell theory and its implications
    for a clearer understanding of the structure and
    functioning of the body

33
  • Johannes Muller (1801-1858)
  • Noted for applying the sciences of physics,
    chemistry, and psychology to the study of the
    human body and thus moved
    AP into a comparative science

34
  • With the development of new technology, research
    became more specialized, detailed, and complex,
  • this forced the development of new disciplines
    and specialties
  • Ex histology, cytology, embryology, neurology,
    gastroenterology, cardiovascular, kinesiology,
    reproductive physiology, endocrinology

35
  • Henry Gray b. 1827
  • English anatomist and physiologist
  • Admitted as a Fellow
    to the Royal Society at
    33 years of age (very young!)
  • Published the definitive Grays Anatomy in 1858

36
and the rest, as they say, is history
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