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The Age of New Imperialism: European Roots

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Title: The Age of Imperialism Author: Bradely Wade Bishop Last modified by: Drew Overholser Created Date: 4/2/2005 5:38:56 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Age of New Imperialism: European Roots


1
The Age of New Imperialism European Roots
  • Red-coated British soldiers stand at attention
    around a royal pavilion during a ceremony in
    India. Britains Queen Victoria took the title
    Empress of India in 1876.

2
The Age of Imperialism
  • Imperialism term used in the 19th century to
    describe various forms of political, economic and
    cultural control by a greater power over lesser
    territories or nationalities
  • Integrated people via complex economic, political
    and social relationships

3
New Imperialism 18701914
  • Intense scramble for influence and/or control
    primary in Africa and Asia
  • Spurred by economic forces Industrial Revolution
  • Need for raw materials for industrial production
    and new markets
  • Domestic needs had been met European markets
    saturated
  • Motivated by political rivalries Rise of
    Nationalism
  • Colonial holdings no longer seen as economic
    burden
  • By 1870, viewed as national necessity in order to
    expand European culture and religion

4
Nations competed for overseas empires-- Britains
lead would be challenged
  • Great Britain could be considered the first
    nation to employ imperialist policies
  • British domination of India began in 1757 when
    their French rivals were driven out
  • The Opium Wars of the mid-19th century resulted
    in British control of Hong Kong, other major
    ports of the Chinese mainland and the Opium trade
  • By the mid-1800s, Britain was the most powerful
    nation in the world
  • Its factories produced more good than those of
    any other country.
  • The powerful British Navy guarded the oceans so
    that those goods could be shipped safely to ports
    around the globe.
  • Controlled a ¼ of the worlds land mass
  • British banks loaned the money needed to build
    factories, mines, and railroads worldwide.
  • By the later 1800s, however, Germany and the
    United States were challenging Britains economic
    leadership.
  • Faced with possible decline, Britain looked
    increasingly to its colonies for markets and
    resources.

5
The Opium Wars added to Great Britains Empire
  • The First Opium War (184042)

6
Nations competed for overseas empires--Imperialis
m fostered rivalries
  • Other countries followed Britains lead and came
    to see colonies as necessary for their economic
    well-being.
  • The French and Dutch expanded their holdings and
    by 1900 France had an empire second in size only
    to Britains.
  • Spain and Portugal attempted to build new empires
    in Africa.
  • Austria-Hungary moved into the Balkans.
  • Russia expanded into the Caucasus, Central Asia,
    and Siberia.

7
Nations competed for overseas empires--Imperialis
m fostered rivalries
  • Countries that had no colonies set out to acquire
    them
  • Belgium, Italy, and Germany all took over lands
    in Africa (with Germany also taking an interest
    in East Asia the Pacific islands).
  • Scramble for Africa The last 20 years of the
  • 19th century saw transition from informal
  • imperialism of control through military
  • influence and economic dominance to that of
  • direct rule. Attempts to mediate imperial
  • competition, such as the Berlin Conference
  • (18841885), failed to establish definitively
    the
  • competing powers' claims.

8
Nations competed for overseas empires--Imperialis
m fostered rivalries
  • Japan also became involved in overseas expansion
    during this period.
  • Japan was interested in East Asia resources
  • In 1895, Japan defeats China and obtains Formosa
    (Taiwan)
  • Will begin its conquest of Korea the next year
  • By the early 1900s, Japan will
  • be ready to take on Russia for
  • control of the region

9
Countries competed for overseas
empires--Nationalism fuels the expansion
  • Increasingly, Europeans viewed empire as a
    measure of national stature and identity.
  • Thus, the race for colonies grew out of a strong
    sense of national pride as well as from economic
    competition.

10
Nations competed for overseas empires--Europe
believed in its own superiority
  • Social Darwinism following the Industrial
    Revolution, Europeans regarded their new
    technology (weaponry, telegraphs, railroads,
    etc.) as proof they were better than other
    peoplesthey were more evolved
  • This attitude is was related to scientific
    racism, the belief that one race is mentally and
    physically superior to others
  • Europeans believed that they had the right and
    duty to bring the results of their progress to
    other countries

11
Nations competed for overseas empires--Europe
believed in its own superiority
  • Some of this push for expansion of the European
    way of life came from missionaries.
  • One of the most famous of these missionaries was
    David Livingstone, a minister from Scotland who
    went to Africa to preach the Gospel and helped to
    end the slave trade there.

12
Dr. Livingstone, I presume.
  • In the late 1800s, Europeans and Americans were
    eager to read about adventures in distant places.
  • Newspapers competed for readership by hiring
    reporters to search the globe for stories.
  • One of the most famous reporters of the day was
    Henry Stanley
  • Stanley was hired in 1871 to find David
    Livingstone who had traveled deep into the heart
    of Africa and hadnt been heard from in some
    years.
  • Ten months later, Stanley caught up with
    Livingstone and his account of their meeting made
    headlines around the world. Stanley became an
    instant celebrity.

13
Nations competed for overseas empires--Imperialis
m had mass appeal back home
  • Novels and poetry also glorified the concept of
    Imperialism
  • The most popular writer of the day was Joseph
    Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936).
  • Kipling appealed not only to his readers sense
    of adventure but also the their feelings of
    superiority.
  • He saw imperialism as a mission to civilize
    non-Europeans and urged his readers to
  • Take up the White Mans Burden-
  • Send forth the best ye breed-
  • Go bind your sons to exile-
  • To serve your captives need

14
The Age of Imperialism
  • In answering the call of imperialism, Europeans
    altered the way of life on every continent.

15
The Age of Imperialism
  • Questions to Consider
  • (a) What countries challenged Britains economic
    leadership? (b) How was the search for colonies
    a response to Britains declining share in world
    trade?
  • What part did each of the following play in
    imperialism? (a) markets (b) raw materials (c)
    national pride
  • What attitude did people in industrialized
    countries have toward other peoples?
  • (a) What part did missionaries play in
    imperialism? (b) How did newspapers and writers
    encourage imperialism?

16
The Age of Imperialism
  • Resources
  • Krieger, Neill, Reynolds. World History
    Perspectives on the Past, 5th Ed. McDougall
    Littell, 1997.
  • www.personal.psu.edu/.../ imperialism.htm
  • http//www.warandpeace.agnostos-theos.net/cartogra
    phy.html
  • www.bbc.co.uk/.../ stan_livingstone.shtml
  • www.englisch.schule.de/ auster/group5/stanley.htm
  • www.theotherpages.org/ poems/faces.html

17
New Imperialism
  • The End
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