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Title: 2 What is sustainable tourism, and related forms of tourism?


1
2 What is sustainable tourism, and related forms
of tourism?
  • Sustainable tourism is
  • Tourism that takes full account of its current
    and future economic, social and environmental
    impacts, addressing the needs of visitors, the
    industry, the environment and host communities.
  • WTO
  • Tourism that is based on the principles of
    sustainable development
  • Tourism that minimizes the costs and maximizes
    the benefits of tourism for natural environments
    and local communities, and can be carried out
    indefinitely without harming the resources on
    which it depends.
  • The term should be used to refer to a condition
    of tourism, not a type of
  • tourism. Well-managed high-volume tourism can,
    and ought to be, just as sustainable as
    small-scale, dispersed special interest tourism.

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Sustainable Tourism
  • CONVENTIONAL TOURISM
  • 1. Has one goal profit
  • 2. Often not planned in advance it just
    happens
  • 3. Tourist oriented
  • 4. Controlled by outside parties
  • 5. Focus on entertainment for tourists
  • 6. Conservation not a priority
  • 7. Communities not a priority
  • 8. Much revenue goes to outside operators
    investors

SUSTAINABLE TOURISM 1. Planned with three goals
profit, environment, and community (triple bottom
line) 2. Usually planned in advance with
involvement of all stakeholders 3. Locally
oriented 4. Locally controlled, at least in
part 5. Focus on educational experiences 6.
Conservation of natural resources a priority 7.
Appreciation for local culture a priority 8. More
revenue stays with local community and MPA
6
  • Triple bottom line of sustainable tourism
  • (International Ecotourism Society, 2004)
  • 1. Environmentally, sustainable tourism has a low
    impact on natural resources, particularly in
    protected areas. It minimizes damage to the
    environment (flora, fauna, habitats, water,
    living marine resources, energy use,
    contamination, etc.) and ideally tries to benefit
    the environment.
  • 2. Socially and culturally, it does not harm the
    social structure or culture of the community
    where it is located. Instead it respects local
    cultures and traditions. It involves stakeholders
    (individuals, communities, tour operators,
    government institutions) in all phases of
    planning, development, and monitoring, and
    educates stakeholders about their roles.
  • 3. Economically, it contributes to the economic
    well being of the community, generating
    sustainable and equitable income for local
    communities and as many other stakeholders as
    possible. It benefits owners, employees and
    neighbours. It does not simply begin and then
    rapidly die because of poor business practices.

7
Sustainable Tourism
  • 1) Make optimal use of environmental resources
    that constitute a key element in tourism
    development, maintaining essential ecological
    processes and helping to conserve natural
    resources and biodiversity.
  • 2) Respect the socio-cultural authenticity of
    host communities, conserve their built and living
    cultural heritage and traditional values, and
    contribute to inter-cultural understanding and
    tolerance.
  • 3) Ensure viable, long-term economic operations,
    providing socio-economic benefits to all
    stakeholders that are fairly distributed,
    including stable employment and income-earning
    opportunities and social services to host
    communities, and contributing to poverty
    alleviation.

8
UNWTO Principles of Sustainable Tourism
9
EU 12 Principles of Sustainable Tourism
  • 1) Economic Viability
  • To ensure the viability and competitiveness of
    tourism destinations and
  • enterprises, so that they are able to continue to
    prosper and deliver benefits in the long term.
  • 2) Local Prosperity
  • To maximize the contribution of tourism to the
    economic prosperity of the host
  • destination, including the proportion of visitor
    spending that is retained locally.
  • 3) Employment Quality
  • To strengthen the number and quality of local
    jobs created and supported by
  • tourism, including the level of pay, conditions
    of service and availability to all
  • without discrimination by gender, race,
    disability or in other ways.
  • 4) Social Equity
  • To seek a widespread and fair distribution of
    economic and social benefits from
  • tourism throughout the recipient community,
    including improving opportunities,
  • income and services available to the poor.
  • 5) Visitor Fulfillment
  • To provide a safe, satisfying and fulfilling
    experience for visitors, available to all
  • without discrimination by gender, race,
    disability or in other ways.
  • 6) Local Control
  • To engage and empower local communities in
    planning and decision making

10
  • 7) Community Wellbeing
  • To maintain and strengthen the quality of life in
    local communities, including social structures
    and access to resources, amenities and life
    support systems, avoiding any form of social
    degradation or exploitation.
  • 8) Cultural Richness
  • To respect and enhance the historic heritage,
    authentic culture, traditions and distinctiveness
    of host communities.
  • 9) Physical Integrity
  • To maintain and enhance the quality of
    landscapes, both urban and rural, and avoid the
    physical and visual degradation of the
    environment.
  • 10) Biological Diversity
  • To support the conservation of natural areas,
    habitats and wildlife, and minimize damage to
    them.
  • 11) Resource Efficiency
  • To minimize the use of scarce and non-renewable
    resources in the development and operation of
    tourism facilities and services.
  • 12)Environmental Purity
  • To minimize the pollution of air, water and land
    and the generation of waste by tourism
    enterprises and visitors.

11
Thomas Cook websitewww.thomascook.com/sustainable
-tourism
  • Sustainable Tourism (also called Responsible
    Tourism) is simply about making a positive
    difference to the people and environment of
    destinations we travel to by
  • - Respecting local cultures and the natural
    environment
  • - Buying local, giving fair economic returns to
    local families
  • - Recognising that water and energy are precious
    resources that we need to use carefully
  • - Helping to protect endangered wildlife
  • - Protecting and enhancing favourite destinations
    for the future enjoyment of visitors and the
    people who live there
  • - Taking responsibility for our actions while
    enjoying ourselves

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Responsible tourism
  • Tourism that can be consumed
  • in a more responsible way
  • Is the term used by the tourism industry
  • Is not the same as sustainable tourism which has
    a more future focus

14
Responsible Tourism
  • The 2002 Cape Town declaration agreed that
    responsible tourism
  • minimises negative economic, environmental
    and social impacts
  • generates greater economic benefits for
    local people and enhances the well being of host
    communities improves working conditions and
    access to the industry
  • involves local people in decisions that
    affect their lives and life chances
  • makes positive contributions to the
    conservation of natural and cultural heritage
    embracing diversity
  • provides more enjoyable experiences for
    tourists through more meaningful connections with
    local people, and a greater understanding of
    local cultural, social and environmental issues
  • provides access for physically challenged
    people
  • is culturally sensitive, encourages respect
    between tourists and hosts, and builds local
    pride and confidence

15
Ecotourism
  • Ecotourism embraces the principles of
    sustainability,
  • but it refers explicitly to a product niche.
  • It is about tourism in natural areas, normally
    involving some form of interpretative experience
    of natural and cultural heritage, positively
    supporting conservation and indigenous
    communities, and usually organized for small
    groups.

16
Challenges
  • Climate change
  • World poverty
  • Biodiversity loss
  • Support for conservation
  • Health, safety and security

17
Challenges
  • Tourism may contribute up to 5.3 per cent of
    global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions,
    with transport accounting for about 90 per cent
    of this.
  • Estimates suggest that aviation accounts for 2-3
    per cent of the worlds total use of fossil fuels
    and up to 3.5 per cent of the anthropogenic
    greenhouse effect. More than 80 per cent of this
    is due to civil aviation.

18
Pros of tourism
  • On the positive side, tourism can
  • Provide a growing source of opportunities for
    enterprise development and employment creation as
    well as stimulating investment and support for
    local services, even in quite remote communities.
  • Bring tangible economic value to natural and
    cultural resources. This can result in direct
    income from visitor spending for their
    conservation, and an increase in support for
    conservation from local communities.
  • Be a force for inter-cultural understanding and
    peace.

19
Cons of Tourism
  • Conversely, tourism can
  • Place direct pressure on fragile ecosystems
    causing degradation of the physical environment
    and disruption to wildlife.
  • Exert considerable pressure on host communities
    and lead to dislocation of traditional societies.
  • Compete for the use of scarce resources,
    notably land and water.
  • Be a significant contributor to local and
    global pollution.
  • Be a vulnerable and unstable source of income,
    as it is often very sensitive to actual or
    perceived changes to the environmental and social
    conditions of destinations.

20
Websites
  • Global Development Research Centre, Japan
  • www.gdrc.org/uem/eco-tour/eco-tour.html
  • European Charter for Sustainable Tourism
  • www.european-charter.org
  • World Tourism Organisation
  • www.world-tourism.org/frameset/frame_sustainable.h
    tml
  • United Nations Environment Programme
  • www.uneptie.org/pc/tourism

21
References
  • Making tourism more sustainable, UNEP
  • Guide for sustainable tourism best practices,
    Rainforest Alliance
  • Practical, profitable, protected A starter guide
    to developing sustainable tourism in protected
    areas, Europarc Federation, ECEAT
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