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PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT THEORIES

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Title: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT THEORIES


1
PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT THEORIES
2
INTERACTIONIST THEORY
  • 1. Cooley (early 1900s) The Looking-Glass
    Self
  • the self is a product of our social interactions
    with others
  • how we imagine others perceive us
  • (ie the instructor criticized me
  • he/she thinks I am stupid I am stupid

3
Note on this slide, please put Figure 3.1 from
page 71
4
Charles Horton Cooley (American) (1864-1929)
5
2. Mead (1930) expanded on Cooleys research
  • Model Self emerges as 3 distinct stages
  • I Preparatory Stage
  • children imitate people around them
  • especially parents (lawnmowers, watering cans)
  • II Play Stage
  • imitates actions of others
  • superheroes, doctor, parent
  • III Game Stage
  • 8-9 years old
  • child knows own social position as well as those
    of others
  • can now respond to numerous members of the
    social environment
  • generalized others when a person
    acts he/she takes into account an entire group of
    people
  • know what is expected of them
  • as they mature, self is influenced by
    significant others

6
George Herbert Mead (American) (1863-1961)
7
PSYCHOANALYST THEORY
  • 3. Freud 1856- 1939
  • -our sexual drives/libido motivate our behaviour
  • -inborn drives which fight with each other
  • -by interacting with others, we learn the
    expectations of society and then select the most
    appropriate behaviour

8
Sigmund Freud (German)(1856-1939)
9
Psychosexual Stages of development
  • different areas of the body in each stage become
    the focus of pleasure.
  • Conflicts at each stage that if are not resolved
    will carry on through adulthood
  • 5 stages
  • I Oral Stage
  • II Anal Stage
  • III Phallic Stage
  • IV Latency Stage
  • V Genital

10
I Oral Stage
  • 0-1.5 years
  • child pre-occupies himself with nursing and
    accepting things in the mouth
  • child who isnt nursed- pessimistic, envious,
    suspicious
  • child who is nursed on every whim- optimistic,
    gullible

11
II Anal Stage
  • 1.5 3 years
  • toilet training
  • id get rid of bodily fluids, superego ego
    societal pressures to withhold them

12
III Phallic Stage
  • 3- 6 years
  • most crucial sexual conflict
  • Oedipus Stage (boys)
  • -unconscious sexual desires for mother
  • -becomes rival with dad/competition
  • -castration anxiety-fear will be caught
    masterbating and will cut penis off
  • -eventually identifies with father
  • Electra complex (girls)
  • -opposite of boys love for dad
  • -penis envy-realize dont have same genitals as
    boys and becomes envious
  • this stage is where Freud says homosexual
    tendencies may stem from if these issues are not
    resolved

13
IV Latency Stage
  • 6 years to puberty
  • sexual drive lies dormant
  • put energy into other things (school,
    friendships, athletics)

14
V Genital
  • puberty
  • genitals are primary focus again
  • heterosexual relationships to resolve desires

15
COGNITIVE THEORY
  • 4. Piaget (1896 1980)
  • There is no self in terms of a looking glass self
  • self-centered no you and me, just me
  • demand attention towards themselves
  • 1954 Cognitive Theory of Development

16
4 Stages I Sensorimotor Stage Birth 2
years -young children use their five senses to
make discoveries II Operational Stage 2 7
years -use words and symbols to distinguish ideas
and objects III Concrete Operational Stage 7
11 years -logical thinking (clay molded is same
clay but shape has changed) IV Formal
Operational Stage 11 up -sophisticated
abstract thought and can deal with ideas and
values in a logical manner.
17
Jean Piaget (Swiss)(1896 1980)
18
  • 5. Kohlberg 1970s
  • Moral Development Theory
  • 1) avoid punishments and receive rewards
  • 2) impress others, respect authority
  • 3) maintain social order and uphold universal
    ethics

19
Lawrence Kohlberg (American)(1927-1988)
20
Carol Gilligan (American) 1936- present
21
7. Gilligan -criticized Kohlbergs model because
it was developed only on males -compassion and
care must be a component of moral
reasoning -women and men have different views on
morality Men law and order Women social
relationships and consequences Her Theory of
Womens Moral Development Stage 1 Selfish I
want.I need. Stage 2 recognizes
responsibility Stage 3 Makes decisions based on
greatest good for all.
22
  • 6. Erikson (1904 1994)
  • Psychosocial Stages of Development
  • each stage consists of a crisis that must be
    faced
  • more an individual resolves crises successfully
    the healthier he/she will be
  • social development continues throughout a
    persons entire life until death

23
Erik Erikson (German/American)(1902-1994)
24
First Year of Life
  • Infancy Trust versus mistrust
  • If significant others provide for basic physical
    and emotional needs, infant develops a sense of
    trust. If basic needs are not met, an attitude of
    mistrust toward the world, especially toward
    interpersonal relationships, is the result.

25
Ages 1-3
  • Early Childhood Autonomy versus shame and doubt
  • A time for developing autonomy. Basic struggle is
    between a sense of self-reliance and a sense of
    self-doubt. Child needs to explore and
    experiment, to make mistakes, and to test limits.
    If parents promote dependency, child's autonomy
    is inhibited, and capacity to deal with world
    successfully is hampered.

26
Ages 3-6
  • Preschool age Initiative versus guilt
  • Basic task is to achieve a sense of competence
    and initiative. If children are given freedom to
    select personally meaningful activities, they
    tend to develop a positive view of self and
    follow through with their projects. If they are
    not allowed to make own decisions, they tend to
    develop guilt over taking initiative. They then
    refrain from taking an active stance and allow
    others to choose for them.

27
Ages 6-12
  • School age Industry versus inferiority
  • Child needs to expand understanding of world,
    continue to develop appropriate sex-role
    identity, and learn the basic skills required for
    school success. Basic task is to achieve a sense
    of industry, which refers to setting and
    attaining personal goals. Failure to do so
    results in a sense of inadequacy.

28
Ages 12-18
  • Adolescence Identity versus role confusion
  • A time of transition between childhood and
    adulthood. A time for testing limits, for
    breaking dependent ties, and for establishing a
    new identity. major conflicts center on
    clarification of self-identity, life goals, and
    life's meaning. Failure to achieve a sense of
    identity results in role confusion.

29
Ages 18-35
  • Young Adulthood Intimacy versus isolation
  • Developmental task at this time is to form
    intimate relationships. Failure to achieve
    intimacy can lead to alienation and isolation

30
Ages 35-60
  • Middle age Generativity versus stagnation
  • There is a need to go beyond self and family and
    be involved in helping the next generation. This
    is a time of adjusting to the discrepancy between
    one's dreams and one's actual accomplishments.
    Failure to achieve a sense of productivity often
    leads to psychological stagnation.

31
Ages 60
  • Later life Integrity versus despair
  • If one looks back on life with few regrets and
    feels personally worth-while, ego integrity
    results. Failure to achieve ego integrity can
    lead to feelings of despair, hopelessness, guilt,
    resentment, and self-rejection.
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