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Welcome to English 1! Prof. Ana Katrina Palma-de Jesus

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Title: Welcome to English 1! Prof. Ana Katrina Palma-de Jesus


1
Welcome to English 1! Prof. Ana Katrina Palma-de
Jesus
2
First, a brief intro
3
3 Things I Know about YOU
  • You are milennials.
  • You learn best by doing.

4
3 Things I Know about YOU
  • 2) You like fun-filled and integrative learning.

5
3 Things I Know about YOU
  • 3) You all want (and need!) to improve your
    communication skills.

6
3 Things You Should Know about ME
  • I expect my students to be avid readers.

7
3 Things You Should Know about ME
  • 2) I demand maximum participation.

8
Do not think that
9
Do not think that
10
And dont ever think you can do this
11
3 Things You Should Know about ME
  • 3) I believe that each student can succeed!

12
Additional House Rules
  • There might be a quiz every meeting.
  • University policy on attendance will apply.
  • We have a unique way of discouraging tardiness.
  • See link http//www.youtube.com/watch?v7B6FkBqk
    Z1g

13
Grading system
  • LECTURE
  • Long exams (2) - 25
  • Quizzes, Exercises, and Assignments - 20
  • Written composition - 5 (Instructions)
  • TOTAL 50

14
Sentence Transformation
15
Our Objectives
  • At the end of the lesson, you should be able to
  • Transform sentences from active to passive voice
    and vice-versa
  • Explain how and when to use the active and
    passive voice
  • Construct Yes-No and WH-questions.

16
First, a personality quiz!
  • Write the number corresponding to the
    description that suits you.
  • 1. I am often leader in groups.
  • 2. I prefer keeping my hopes and dreams to
    myself.
  • 3. I seek out close, personal relationships with
    people.
  • 4. I act in a sympathetic way towards people.

17
First, a personality quiz!
  • 5. I see to it that people do things the way I
    want them to.
  • 6. I easily get influenced by other peoples
    ideas.
  • 7. I invite people to spend time or hang out.
  • 8. I act in a sweet way towards people.
  • 9. I decide fast and firmly.
  • 10. I make friends usually when they are the
    first to approach me.

18
Active Voice
  • - the subject performs the action expressed in
    the verb the subject acts.
  • S V DO
  • Dennis drives the car.

19
Passive Voice
  • the subject receives the action expressed in the
    verb
  • the subject is acted upon.
  • the agent performing the action may appear in a
    "by the . . ." phrase or may be omitted.
  • The car is driven by Dennis.

20
Transform these from active to passive
  1. Filipinos deserve democracy.
  2. I am teaching agriculture to UPLB students.
  3. The board has announced its decision.

21
Transform these from active to passive
  • Filipinos deserve democracy.
  • Democracy is deserved by Filipinos.
  • 2. I am teaching agriculture to UPLB students.
  • Agriculture is being taught to UPLB
    students by me.
  • 3. The board has announced its decision.
  • The boards decision has been announced.

22
Transform these from passive to active
  1. That tree was planted by my grandfather.
  2. The title is being claimed by him.
  3. Rumours had been spread by the tabloid writers.

23
Transform these from passive to active
  • That tree was planted by my grandfather.
  • My grandfather planted that tree.
  • 2. The title is being claimed by him.
  • He is claiming the title.
  • 3. Rumours had been spread by the tabloid
    writers.
  • The tabloid writers had spread the rumours.

24
How was it done?
  • Passive Voice - the object of the active
    sentence is moved ahead of the verb and becomes
    the subject 
  • form of be (am, is, was, were, are, or been) is
    added to the verb past participle.
  • the subject of the active sentence is either
    expressed in a prepositional phrase by or
    dropped.

25
BUT!
26
1. Avoid starting a sentence in active voice and
then shifting to passive.
  • Incorrect He tried to act cool when he slipped
    in the puddle, but he was still laughed at by the
    other students.
  • Correct He tried to act cool when he slipped in
    the puddle, but the other students still laughed
    at him.

27
2. Do not change the verb tense.
  • Active Voice - Past Tense
  • Boredom struck me. 
  • Passive Voice
  • I was struck by boredom.

28
3. Make sure the subject and the verb agree in
number.
  • Active Voice - Plural
  • Experienced pilots fly these planes.
  • Passive Voice
  • These planes are flown by experienced pilots.

29
4. Check to see if there are no
misplaced/dangling modifiers.
  • Dangling To save time, the paper was written on
    a computer. (Who was saving time? The paper?)
  • Correct To save time, Kristin wrote the paper on
    a computer. (Provide a subject.)

30
4. Check to see if there are no
misplaced/dangling modifiers.
  • The rapid growth of the nuclear power
    industry has raised a number of questions about
    potential radiation exposure.
  • Misplaced A number of questions have been raised
    by the rapid growth of the nuclear power industry
    about potential radiation exposure.
  • Correct A number of questions about potential
    radiation exposure have been raised by the rapid
    growth of the nuclear power industry.

31
  • To simplify things, lets look at this table

32
When to use the active and passive voice
  • Generally, we prefer the active voice!
  • Imagine reading sentences like this
  • Since the car was being driven by Michael at
    the time of the accident, the damages should be
    paid for by him.

33
  • But the passive might be more acceptable in the
    following cases

34
1) The actor is unknown.
  • The cave paintings of Lascaux were made in
    the Upper Old Stone Age. (We dont know who made
    them.)

35
2) The actor is irrelevant.
  • An experimental solar power plant will be
    built in the Australian desert. (We are not
    interested in who is building it.)

36
3) You want to be vague about who is responsible.
  • Mistakes were made.
  • (Common in bureaucratic writing!)

37
4) You are talking about a general truth.
  • Rules are made to be broken.
  • (By whomever, whenever.)

38
5) You want to emphasize the person or thing
acted on.
  • Insulin was first discovered in 1921 by
    scientists at the University of Toronto. It is
    still the only treatment available for diabetes.
  • (Insulin is your main topic here.)

39
6) You are writing in a scientific genre that
traditionally relies on passive voice.
  • Passive voice is often preferred in lab
    reports and scientific research papers, most
    notably in the Materials and Methods section
  • The sodium hydroxide was dissolved in water.
    This solution was then titrated with hydrochloric
    acid.

40
Seatwork
  • Transform from active to passive
  • The Bureau of Internal Revenue sent taxpayers
    copies of the new rules on tax payments.
  • 2. The president designated her governor.

41
Seatwork
  • Transform from passive to active
  • 3. Chemical energy is converted into mechanical
    energy by muscles.
  • 4. What Americans consider poverty would be
    regarded as affluence by Asians.

42
Constructing Yes-No and WH- questions
43
Lets try these sentences
  • Filipinos deserve democracy.
  • I am teaching agriculture to UPLB students.
  • The board has announced its decision.

44
  • A few basic rules in constructing questions
    answerable by Yes or No

45
  • 1 be verb - switch the positions of the subject
    and verb.
  • Example
  • S Ligaya is an athlete.
  • Q Is Ligaya an athlete?

46
  • 2 verb phrases - switch the positions of the
    subject and first verb.
  • Example
  • S V1 - V2
  • S Dennis is reviewing his lessons.

47
  • 3 action words use do, does, did at the
    beginning of the sentence.

48
examples
  • 3.1. Add Do to the beginning of the sentence.
  • Note Subject is plural present tense.
  • S The officials give benefits to drivers.
  • Q Do the officials give benefits to drivers?

49
  • 3.2. If the main verb "carries" a third person
    singular s, use Does.
  • Note Subject is singular present tense.
  • S V
  • S Jane attends a seminar.
  • Q Does Jane attend a seminar?

50
  • 3.3. If the main verb "carries" the past tense,
    use Did.
  • Note Change the verb to present tense.
  • S V
  • S Shirley dyed her hair.
  • Q Did Shirley dye her hair?

51
WH Questions
  • Open questions
  • Unlike Yes-No questions, this type leaves room
    for a description or opinion
  • - useful in eliciting information

52
WH Questions

Question Word Function Example
what asking for information about something What is the meaning of our existence?
asking for repetition or confirmation What? I can't hear you. What did you say?
what...for asking for a reason, asking why What did you do that for?
53
WH Questions

who asking what or which person or people (subject) Who recited in class?
whom asking what or which person or people (object) Whom did you see?
whose asking about ownership Whose is this cell phone? Whose turn is it?
54
WH Questions

why asking for reason, asking what...for Why do we use plastic?
why don't making a suggestion Why don't we recycle waste?
55
WH Questions

when asking about time When will we submit the assignment?
where asking in or at what place or position Where is your cubicle?
which asking about choice Which chapter should we read?
how manner How can we solve the problem?
56
WH Questions
how adj / adv asking about extent or degree
how far distance How far is Grove from Crossing?
how long length (time or space) How long will it take?
how many quantity (countable) How many books are there?
how much quantity (uncountable) How much time do you have?
how old age How old are you?
how come (informal) asking for reason, asking why How come I can't see her?

57
WH Questions
  • Grammar used with wh- questions
  • depends on whether the topic being asked about
    is the "subject" or "predicate" of a sentence

58
WH Questions
  • Subject pattern
  • S P
  • RJ has my laptop.
  • Who has my laptop?
  • The large room is bothering you.
  • What is bothering you?

59
WH Questions
  • Subject pattern
  • replace the person or thing being asked about
    with the appropriate wh-word
  • what, which, who or whose refers to the subject

60
WH Questions
  • Predicate pattern
  • 1. "be verb - invert the subject and verb, then
    add the appropriate wh- word to the beginning of
    the sentence.
  • S P
  • S - V Who?
  • A Aquino is our president.
  • ? is Aquino?
  • Q Who is Aquino?

61
WH Questions
Predicate pattern S P S- V- When? The
meeting was in the afternoon. ? Was the
meeting When was the meeting?
62
WH Questions
  • Predicate pattern
  • 2. "auxiliary" verb - Auxiliary or "helping"
    verbs are verbs that precede main verbs
  • Auxiliary verbs are italicized in the following
    sentences.
  • I can do it. They are leaving tomorrow. I have
    eaten my lunch. I should have finished my
    homework.

63
WH Questions
  • Predicate pattern
  • First, form a yes/no question by inverting the
    subject and (first) auxiliary verb.
  • Then, add the appropriate wh- word to the
    beginning of the sentence.
  • S V1 V2 What?
  • He is doing something.
  • Is he doing something?
  • What is he doing?

64
WH Questions
Predicate pattern S V1 V2
Where? They have been to Robinsons. ?
have they been Where have they been?
65
WH Questions
  • Predicate pattern
  • 3. add do to the beginning of the sentence (if
    there is no auxiliary and the verb is not "be)
  • Then add the appropriate wh-question word.
  • Be sure to "transfer" the tense and number from
    the main verb to the word do.
  • Note Subject is plural.
  • S V What?
  • The freshmen review Math 17.
  • ? do the freshmen review What do the freshmen
    review?

66
WH Questions
  • Predicate pattern
  • Past tense
  • S V Where?
  • John went outside.
  • ? did John go
  • Where did John go?
  • Present/singular
  • S V What?
  • The flower produces nectar.
  • ? does the flower produce
  • What does the flower produce?

67
References
  • Corson, T. and Smollett, R. Passive Voice When
    to use it and when to avoid. Retrieved from
    www.writing.utoronto.ca
  • Dadufalza, C.D. (1996). Reading into Writing I
    Bookmark Inc.
  • Grammar (n.d.). Retrieved July 2010 from
    http//www.learnenglish.de/grammar/questiontext.ht
    m
  • Table of tenses in English with active and
    passive. Retrieved from http//www.lingolex.com/te
    nses.htm
  • WH Question form (n.d.) Retrieved June 2010 from
    http//www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/wh-question-
    words.htm
  • Yes-No Questions (n.d.). Retrieved June 2010 from
    http//www.eclecticenglish.com/grammar/PresentSimp
    leToBe1C.html
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