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The Idealistic Tendency in Ch

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Title: The Idealistic Tendency in Ch


1
The Idealistic Tendency in Cheng Hao ????????
  • Wing-tsit Chan
  • ???

2
idealistic? ????(??)???????(??)???
  • ??
  • ???????????(?????)??????????
  • ?????????????????

3
  • ???????(?)???,????????(?)?????????????,???????
    ???
  • Cheng I is so much more rationalistic than
    Cheng Hao and Cheng Hao is so much more
    idealistic than Cheng I that it is permissible
    to say that Cheng Hao inaugurated the idealistic
    wing of Neo-Confucianism while his brother
    inaugurated the rationalistic wing,

4
????????????
  • ?????(idealism)??????,?????
  • ?????(rationalism)??????,??????
  • ????????????????????????????,????????????

5
  • ?????????
  • Their fundamental agreement, which forms the
    keynote to their philosophy in particular and to
    Neo-Confucianism in general, namely, the concept
    of principle (li), must be pointed out

6
?????????
  • More especially for Cheng Hao, principle is
    the Principle of Nature (Tien-li, Principle of
    Heaven). As conceived and understood by the
    brothers, principle is self-evident and
    self-sufficient, extending everywhere and
    governing all things. It cannot be augmented or
    diminished. It is many but it is essentially one,
    for all specific principles are but principle. It
    is possessed by all people and all things. Even a
    very small thing has principle. It is laid before
    our very eyes.

7
?????????(?)
  • Man and all things form one body because all
    of them share this principle. To be sincere is to
    be sincere to it, and to be serious is to be
    serious about it. In short, it is one and all. It
    is identical with the mind and it is identical
    with the nature. All things exist because of it
    and can be understood through it. It is universal
    truth, universal order, universal law. Most
    important of all, it is a universal process of
    creation and production. It is dynamic and vital.

8
????????????
  • It can easily be seen that to the Cheng
    brothers this principle means both natural
    principles and moral principles, and both general
    principles and specific principles. They were not
    much concerned with abstract reality, for they
    were primarily interested in the meaning of
    principle for man. Thus they turned
    Neo-Confucianism from speculation on cosmology to
    concentrate on the problems of principle and
    human nature, thereby making Neo-Confucianism
    truly a School of Nature and Principle.

9
?????? ?????????????
  • ??????????(speculation on cosmology)?????
  • ?????????
  • ????????
  • ???????????

10
Tien-li, according to Hu Shih, stands for the
Natural Law.
  • ???????????,???? Natural Law?(???,???,????
    Stoicism ?)
  • ????????(Principle, the Principle of
    Nature)vs. Natural Law

11
  • So far as the concept of the Principle of
    Nature is concerned, he got no help from them.
    The term Tien-li appears in the Book of Rites.
    However, there it means the principle endowed in
    man by Heaven and does not have the connotation
    of universal truth or natural law.
  • Cheng himself once said, Although I have
    learned some of my doctrines from others, the
    concept of the Principle of Nature, however, has
    been realized by myself. What is said of Cheng
    Hao could have been said of Cheng I.

12
  • ?? ??????? ????????,??,???lt??gt?????????????
    ???lt??gt,????????????,????????????????????????
    ???????,??????,???????????
  • ????,??? realize?

13
??????
  • It was the Cheng brothers own idea to make
    principle the central focus of their philosophy.
    While the two brothers shared common ideas about
    it, they also had different emphases
  • Cheng I stressed the doctrine that principle is
    one but its manifestations are many.

14
????????????, ?????
  • Compared with his brother, Cheng Hao has
    emphasized more strongly the idea of production
    and reproduction as the chief characteristic of
    the universe. He saw the spirit of life in all
    things. To him, this creative quality is jen
    (humanity), which removes all distinctions
    between the self and the other and combines
    Heaven, Earth, and man as one.

15
  • ??
  • ?????????
  • ?????????

16
????????
  • As the great virtue of Heaven and Earth is to
    produce, whatever is produced in man, that is,
    whatever is inborn in him, is his nature. To him
    this is identical with material force (chi). In
    its original, tranquil state, human nature is
    neither good nor evil. The distinction arises
    when human nature is aroused and is manifested in
    feelings and actions, and when these feelings and
    action abide by or deviate from the mean.

17
  • The chief task of moral and spiritual cultivation
    is to calm ones nature, through absolute
    impartiality and the identification of internal
    and external life. Any opposition between the
    internal and the external, he said, must be
    forgotten. In fact, he rejects dichotomy of any
    kind, whether between the human mind and the
    moral mind, between the Principle of Nature and
    human desires, or between human nature and
    feelings. To achieve unity, he advocated
    sincerity and seriousness (ching), that is,
    concentrating on thing and not getting away from
    it.

18
Quietism, but not tranquility?
  • There can be no denial that in advocating such a
    method of moral cultivation he tended to
    quietism. Whether he was influenced by Chou Tun-i
    or by Zen Buddhists of both is a moot point. We
    must not forget, however, that he looked upon
    Chou Tun-is doctrine of tranquility as
    unbalanced and substituted for it seriousness.

19
  • Moreover, to him the universe is a great current
    of production. Whatever quietism there is in him,
    then, is not Buddhist emptiness and silence but a
    vital, if gentle and quiet, process. Like the
    Buddhists, however, he almost exclusively
    emphasizes the mind. To him, Principle and the
    mind are one, and he stresses holding on to the
    mind with seriousness and preserving the mind as
    fundamental steps to moral perfection. In thus
    stressing the mind, he and his brother, who
    stressed more strongly the extension of
    knowledge, moved in different directions.

20
Dynamic Idealistic in Wang Yang-Ming ?????????
  • Wing-tsit Chan
  • ???

21
?????????????????????????,?????,??????,????????
???????
  • Chu Hsis philosophical spirit of rational
    inquiry and genuine search for fundamental
    principles had, by Wangs time, degenerated into
    trifling with what Wang called fragmentary and
    isolated details and broken pieces.
  • -?????,???????

22
  • To Wang, the source of the trouble was the
    erroneous theory of the investigation of things
    propagated by Cheng I and Chu Hsi. In insisting
    that every blade of grass and every tree
    possesses principle and therefore should be
    investigated, the theory diverted people from the
    basic principles of things and the fundamentals
    of life.

23
  • Moreover, by saying that the mind should go to
    things to investigate the principles inherent in
    them, the theory considered things as external
    and separated the mind and principle. As a
    result, according to Wang, the mind lost its
    direction and its motivating power. If principles
    were outside the mind, he said, then the
    principle of filial piety and therefore the
    desire to be filial would cease to be as soon as
    the parents die. To him, principle and the mind
    are one and the principle of filial piety is
    nothing but the exercise of the mind.

24
  • ???,????????????????????????????,???,?????????????
    ???????????,???????(??????,??)??????????,?????????
    ???????,????,??????????????,???,?????,???????????
    ????????,?????,??????,?????????(??)????,??????

25
??????,?????????????????,????????
  • By the mind Wang meant essentially the will.
    There would be no principle or things unless the
    mind were determined to realize it. This is the
    reason why Wang insisted that the sincerity of
    the will must precede the investigation of
    things.
  • ????????(will)?

26
  • In this he directly opposed Chu Hsi who shifted
    the chapters of the Great Learning so that that
    on the investigation of things comes before that
    on the sincerity of the will.
  • Wang rejected this rearrangement and returned to
    the old text as it is found in the Book of Rites
    where the chapter on the sincerity of the will
    comes first.

27
?? vs. ???
  • The fundamental difference between Chu and Wang
    lies in the fact that while Chus approach is
    intellectual, Wangs is moral. Chu Hsi
    interpreted the term ko-wu as the rational and
    objective investigation of things, but Wang
    preferred to interpret it to mean to eliminate
    what is incorrect in the mind so as to preserve
    the correctness of its original substance. That
    is to say, to investigate things or affairs is to
    do good and to remove evil.

28
??????
  • ????,??????????,???????????????????,????????????,?
    ??????????????????????????????,?????????????

29
??????????????????????????????,?????????????
  • Actually Wangs theory is entirely subjective and
    confuses reality with value. It is difficult to
    accept his version of ko-wu, for if the term
    means to rectify the mind, why should it be ko-wu
    (to ko things) instead of ko-hsin (to ko the
    mind)? His interpretation is of course based on
    the theory that the mind and things are one. But
    this theory of his is founded on very shaky
    grounds.

30
  • The point, however, is that his whole emphasis is
    on moral values. He was convinced that if the
    mind is divided or devoted to external things, it
    will be concerned only with fragmentary details
    and will lack the essentials.

31
??
  • ?????????????
  • ???????????????
  • ?????????????
  • ??????????????,???????????????

32
????????
  • What was Wangs remedy for this sad situation?
    The remedy is his greatest contribution to
    Chinese philosophy, namely, the doctrine of the
    extension of the innate knowledge of the good
    (chih liang-chih). The idea of the extension of
    knowledge comes from the Great Learning and the
    idea of innate knowledge of the good from
    Mencius. Wangs theory is not merely a
    combination of the two but it gives them a new
    meaning which gives a new complexion to Chinese
    thought.

33
  • ?????????????????????????lt??gt,??????????
  • ??????? the extension of the innate knowledge of
    the good
  • ?????? the extension of knowledge
  • ?????? the innate knowledge of the good

34
????????????,?????????????????????,??????,???????
  • It is the Principle of Nature (Tien-li), which
    is not only the principle of right and wrong but
    also the principle that naturally extends. The
    mind in its original substance naturally knows
    the principle of filial piety, for example, when
    one sees ones parents, and naturally extends it
    into action. ??????????

35
??????????
  • This leads to another major contribution he made
    to Chinese philosophy, namely, the doctrine of
    the unity of knowledge and action.
  • Wang was the first to identify them as one.

36
?????????????
  • 1 The mind naturally knows that and
    naturally extends it into action
  • 2 The unity of knowledge and action
  • 3 identify them as one

37
????????
  • ??????,??????
  • ?????
  • fallacy of circular defining?

38
?????
  • He was thinking only of a particular kind of
    knowledge, but his total emphasis on the will is
    clear.
  • ???????,??????????,?????????????,????????
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