Detail of Theodore Roosevelt leading his Rough Riders at the storming of San Juan Hill, Cuba, on July 1, 1898. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Detail of Theodore Roosevelt leading his Rough Riders at the storming of San Juan Hill, Cuba, on July 1, 1898.


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Title: Detail of Theodore Roosevelt leading his Rough Riders at the storming of San Juan Hill, Cuba, on July 1, 1898.

Becoming a World Power, 18801917
Expansionism shapes U.S. foreign policy and leads
to the acquisition of new territories.
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Detail of Theodore Roosevelt leading his Rough
Riders at the storming of San Juan Hill, Cuba, on
July 1, 1898.
The United States expands its interest in world
affairs and acquires new territories.
The United States Continues to Expand
Reasons for U.S. Expansion
Imperialismstronger nations extend control
over weaker nations
European nations have been establishing
colonies for centuries (See next slide.)
3 factors help fuel development of American
imperialism - economic interests - military
interests - belief in cultural superiority
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Seward and Alaska
Secretary of State William Seward arranges
purchase of Alaska (1867)
  • Purchase is widely criticized, turns out to be
    great bargain for U.S.
  • There is land for military bases, oil, timber,
    fisheries, etc.
  • People call the purchase Sewards Folly, Sewards
    Icebox and the Polar Bear Garden

https// Seward
s Folly 354
Denali (Mount McKinley)
Denali (Mount McKinley)
Mount McKinley is the tallest mountain in North
America. It is 20,320 feet tall. Mount McKinley
is also called Denali. Denali is an Athabascan
Indian name meaning The High One.
Glaciers are made up of fallen snow that, over
many years, compress into large, thickened ice
masses. Glaciers form when snow remains in one
location long enough to transform into ice. What
makes glaciers unique is their ability to move.
Due to sheer mass, glaciers flow like very slow
Alaska has from 10-20 earthquakes every day! The
largest so far was the Great Alaskan Earthquake
in 1964. It killed 131 people and caused 300-400
million dollars in damage. The earthquake was
felt in all parts of Alaska, and even parts of
Canada and Washington, and it created waves up to
70 meters high.
This was a 6-story apartment building in
Anchorage after the 1964 earthquake.
The Northern Lights (Aurora Borealis)
Aurora Borealis is also known as the northern
lights. It is a fantastic light show! It is
caused by electricity that passes through a thin
gas and it causes a spark or glow. The
electricity comes from particles from the sun
that come in contact with the earth's atmosphere.
Alaskan Animals
Musk Ox
Killer Whales
Snowshoe Hare
Grizzly Bear
Polar Bear
These are just a few of the many animals that
live in Alaska. We talk about a few on the next
few slides.
Musk Ox
  • The word Oomingmak (for musk ox) means "the
    animal with skin like a beard" to the Inupiaq
    speaking Eskimos.
  • They are usually 3-5 feet tall and weigh 500-900
  • The musk ox coat and hooves keep them warm in the
    cold arctic weather which can reach 70ºF.
  • The soft underfur of the Oomingmak is used by
    native people to create many knitted items. They
    use the fur of the musk
    ox because it is one of the warmest furs known
    to man.

Polar Bears
  • Polar bears live only at the very northern tip of
  • They do not hibernate.
  • Their white fur helps keep them camouflaged in
    the snow, but underneath their fur, they have
    black skin. The black skin absorbs heat from the
    sun and helps them stay warm.
  • They are great swimmers!
  • They have fur on the soles of their feet to keep
    them from slipping on ice.

Grizzly Bear
  • Grizzly bears and brown bears are the same kind
    of bears.
  • They can be 6 ½ to 7 feet long, and weigh 330 to
    825 pounds.
  • They eat about 80 to 90 pounds of food every day.
  • They eat mostly grasses, flowers, and berries,
    but they also eat fish, insects, and other small
  • They have long claws (3 to 4 ¾ inches long) which
    they use for digging for food.
  • They hibernate during the winter months.

Culture and Traditions
Subsistence Lifestyle
Iditarod Dog Sled Race
Music and Dance
Blanket Toss
The Five Feathers On A Dance Fan
Represent First Feather - Yupiks of the land
Second Feather - animals of the water Third
Feather - birds of the sky Fourth Feather -
animals of the land Fifth Feather - fruits and
wild vegetables
Seasoned dried fish strips are a tasty snack.
Many Natives depend on king salmon, halibut, and
other fish for food and income.
Many Alaskans also depend on meat from caribou
and moose.
Long ago, hunters would put one person on a
blanket and toss them high into the air to scout
for food, as there were no trees or tall
buildings to climb up and see far away. The
scout, when tossed high, could look around and
find animals and point the hunters in the right
direction. Today, the blanket toss is performed
at many festivals and celebrations in Alaska for
a fun way to preserve a cultural tradition.
Mukluks are like tall moccasins made of fur and
animal skin. They are waterproof and very warm.
A parka from long ago and a modern parka.
A kuspuk is a lightweight coat. Mothers carry
their babies in the back of the kuspuk.
The Iditarod Dog Sled Race is an annual tradition
in Alaska. It was started to keep alive the
tradition of using dogs and sleds as opposed to
snowmobiles and four-wheelers. The race is over
1,000 miles from Anchorage to Nome. A special
award is given to the last person who crosses the
finish line. It is called the Red Lantern award
because, as a joke, they used to say that the
last person was so far behind they needed a
lantern to find the way to Nome. Now it is a
symbol of perseverance and honor.
DXpsmUCtsd2oindex6 The History of Hawaii 751
Annexing Hawaii
  • 1898

Why Hawaii?
  • Political to spread democracy-Hawaii had a
  • Economic for resources such as sugar fruits,
    land, cheap labor, trade routes/markets
  • Religious Convert them to Christianity

  • Military for a naval base in the Pacific
  • Social To spread our culture.
  • Social Darwinism We believe we need to
    civilize them.

Steps to Annexation
  • 1820s American farmers begin buying cheap land
    in Hawaii
  • They grow sugar and recruit cheap labor from
    China, Japan, the Philippines

Steps to Annexation
  • 1875 Turning Point for US plantation owners
  • US makes a deal with Hawaiian King that there
    will not be a tax on sugar
  • So we buy their sugar cheaper plantation owner
    make more money!
  • US plantation owners want more power in Hawaiian

Steps to Annexation
  • 1886 US asks King if we can have a naval base
  • King says no! Why?
  • 1887 Bayonet Constitution American landowners
    led an uprising
  • King is pressured to sign Constitution
  • US gets base at Pearl Harbor large landowners
    get voting rights
  • King is losing power

Steps to Annexation
  • 1891 King Dies!
  • Queen Liliuokalani (sister) takes over makes
    Constitution null void to rid American Power

  • John Stevens Sanford Dole led revolt
  • US marines help
  • Overthrow Queen
  • Dole declares himself President of Hawaii

Hawaii is Annexed
  • 1898 Hawaii becomes a US territory under
    President McKinley
  • Dole becomes 1st Governor
  • Why dont we make them a state?
  • Becomes state 1959 -50th!

The Annexation of Hawaii
By late 1800s, wealthy American planters
dominate Hawaiis economy
Hawaiian leader Queen Liliuokalani wants to
limit planters power . So American planters
depose (remove from office suddenly and
forcefully) her.
Show kukui nut lei.
Hawaii- Queen Liliuokalani resigned from her
position as queen to protect her people against
bloodshed caused by American sugar growers
Planters, U.S. Marines overthrow queen, set up
own government
Grover Cleveland
  • Became President and did not approve of the
    planters actions and withdrew the treaty
  • He opposed the annexation of Hawaii to the United

Independence movements in Spanish colonies lead
to the Spanish-American War in 1898.
The Spanish American colonies at their maximum
extent (after the Peace of Paris, 1783)
The Columbus balcony at the Alcazar in Segovia,
Columbus was an Italian who sailed for Spain.
The Spanish-American War
  • One Americans Story
  • Jose Martis lifelong struggle for Cubas
    independence made him the symbol of liberty
    throughout Latin America.

Rebellion Against Spain
By 1890s, Spain has few colonies, Philippines,
Cuba, Puerto Rico
In 1895, Cubans revolt, Spain uses harsh
methods to suppress revolt
Methods anger Americans, rebellion disrupts
U.S. trade with Cuba
U.S. newspapers describe, sometimes exaggerate,
Spanish cruelty
Newspapers use sensational style of writing
called yellow journalism
The United States Goes to War
President McKinley did not want the U.S. to go to
war with Spain
President McKinley demands Spain stop harsh
treatment of Cubans
Sends U.S.S. Maine to Cuba to protect U.S.
citizens there
Maine explodes, killing 260 sailors, Spain
Remember the Maine! becomes a call to arms
McKinley demands Cubas independence,
withdrawal of Spains troops
Spain refuses, Spanish-American War begins
The Media Had a Role in Causing the
Spanish-American War
  1. They shaped American public opinion in favor of
  2. They exaggerated new stories about Spanish
    cruelty in Cuba
  3. They blamed Spain for the sinking of the
    battleship U.S.S. Maine

The War in the Philippines
Filipinos revolt against Spanish rule (1890s)
U.S. Commodore George Dewey in contact with
rebel leader
Spanish-American War begins, Dewey, fleet head
to Manila, Philippines
U.S. fleet destroys Spanish fleet at battle in
Manila Bay (1898) in the Philippine Islands. This
was the 1st major battle of the Spanish-American
U.S. troops, Filipino rebels take control of
Manila in August
The War in the Caribbean
  • When the Spanish-American War began, Theodore
    Roosevelt resigned his government post and
    volunteered to fight.

Three Facts About Rough Riders
1. Theodore Roosevelt sets up 1st U.S. Volunteer
CavalryRough Riders
2. Rough Riders included cowboys, miners, college
students, New York policemen, athletes, and
Native Americans
3. Rough Riders, and other soldiers capture San
Juan Hill, near Santiago
Santiago surrenders, U.S. forces take Puerto
Rico, Spain signs truce
American ships destroy Spanish fleet
in Santiago Harbor
Roosevelt and the Rough Riders
  • Roosevelt captured national attention by
    advocating war with Spain in 1898. His volunteer
    cavalry brigade, the Rough Riders, won public
    acclaim for its role in the battle of San Juan
    Hill in Cuba.
  • Roosevelt returned a hero and was soon elected
    governor of NY and later McKinleys

Teddy Roosevelt and the Rough Riders
Results of the War
Spain gives up colonies, signs peace treaty
Filipinos fought alongside American soldiers
because they believed they were fighting for
their independence
Philippines becomes U.S. colony, Filipino
revolt against U.S. subdued
U.S. leaders require Cuba to sign and add the
Platt Amendment to its constitution - it allows
the U.S. to intervene in Cuban affairs if life,
property, liberty threatened - allows U.S. naval
base at Guantánamo Bay
Puerto Rico becomes U.S. territory
Grants U.S. citizenship to all Puerto Ricans
The Anti-Imperialist League
Many people object to U.S. treatment of Spains
former colonies
Anti-Imperialist League members
believe - U.S. should not deny other people
Leagues opinions lost in approval for
Spanish-American War
Luis Munoz Rivera helped Puerto Rico to gain an
independent government
In the early 1900s, the United States expands its
involvement in Asia and Latin America.
U.S. Involvement Overseas
A Power in the Pacific
U.S. acquires Hawaii, Guam, Philippines in the
Many Americans want profits from
Asian markets, resources
Others want U.S. to extend its democracy,
culture to Asia
For over 200 years, no foreigner was allowed to
enter Japan at all. Even shipwrecked sailors were
forced to remain in Japan so that no information
could leak out. A strict feudal system operated.
Japan remained an enigma to the outside world.
This was the situation until 1853, when an
American Squadron under the command of Commodore
Perry arrived at Edo Bay (Tokyo), demanding that
Japan open its borders to foreign commerce.
Commodore Mathew Perry opened U.S. trade with
Japan in the 1850s. Perrys voyages opened
Japan to Western ideas.
The United States in China
Japan, European powers expand their spheres of
influence in China
Spheres of influenceareas where foreign powers
claim special rights
John Hay responded to Japanese and European
expansion of their spheres of influence in China
by asking nations involved in the region to
follow an Open Door Policy
Most foreign powers in China accept U.S. Open
Door Policy (1899)-no single country should have
monopoly on trade with China
The people of China resisted foreign control in
a violent uprising known as the Boxer Rebellion.
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Last Samurai Trailer 225
Ldc7qmvEg6e6jRUaAk0dz0uhGseRycpdRindex5 Fight
Scene in the Rain 337
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Training 219
Panama Canal
The building of the Panama Canal took 34 years
from the initial effort in 1880 to actually
opening the canal in 1914. The building of the
canal is considered one of the greatest
engineering feats in history.
Panama Canal
Both the United States and Europe wanted to build
a canal across Central America This would save
time and be less dangerous than going around Cape
Horn in Chile Isthmus of Panama - the area known
as Panama is 50 miles mile and was owned by
French Failure
  • 1879 - the French buy land in Panama to build a
  • Quickly run out of money and desire
  • Many men die to tropical disease
  • French sell the rights to the land to the US in
    1901 for 40 million
  • Colombia tells US they are not allowed to dig the

In Summary-The Panama Canal
U.S. leaders want canal to connect
Atlantic, Pacific Oceans
Colombia refuses to grant the U.S. the right to
build a canal across its territory.
T. Roosevelt sent the U.S. Navy to Colombia to
help a revolution succeed new nation Panama
created (1903)
Panama gives U.S. strip of landCanal Zone,
U.S. pays Panama
U.S. builds Panama Canalshortcut connects
Atlantic, Pacific
In 1921, U.S. pays Colombia for loss of Panama
TR takes Action
  • TR really wants a canal and isnt bothered by the
    fact that Colombia wont allow him to build it.
  • TR supports a revolution by Panama to overthrow
  • US sends ships, men, and support.
  • Panama is free - One day revolt ends with
    Panamas independence

Lets Make a Deal
  • US recognizes Panama as a country on 11/6/1903
  • US and Panama cut a deal - US leases land for 99
    years for 10 million and 250,000 annually
    (Turned down by Colombia)
  • US begins construction of a huge ditch through
    the country of Panama

  • Used Frances unfinished canal to start
  • Locks built to go over mountains
  • 51 miles long
  • 375 million 300 million of French

Panama Canal
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Panama Canal
  • Describe two reasons why the President Roosevelt
    wanted to build a canal through Panama?
  • American builders faced difficult problems that
    threatened to derail the project such as tropical
    diseases like Malaria and Yellow Fever.

(No Transcript)
Panama Canal
  • Dr. William Gorgas, was hired to eradicate yellow
    fever , like he had in Havana years before. He
    was able to accomplish his goal by killing the
    mosquitoes that carried the diseases. Workers
  • Drained swamps, swept drainage ditches, paved
    roads and installed plumbing.
  • Sprayed pesticides by the ton.
  • Entire towns rose from the jungle, complete with
    housing, schools, churches, commissaries, and
    social halls.

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Benefits of the Panama Canal
  • Shorter Distance - former route was 12,600 miles.
    Now 4,900 miles
  • Security - US Navy could get places quicker so it
    helped with protection of US and imperialism
  • Information - US controlled who traveled through
    the canal
  • Power - Sent a message of power and action of US
    to the world

U.S. Involvement in Latin America
U.S. buys food, raw materials cheap in Latin
America - bananas, coffee, copper
Ship goods to U.S., sell for higher price
U.S. buys large amounts of land in Latin
American for farming, mining
Wants political stability, no European
Latin America generally includes countries that
speak Spanish or Portuguese. Latino refers to
a person born in Latin America or whose family is
from Latin America.
Policing the Hemisphere
President Roosevelts foreign policy, Speak
softly, but carry a big stick
Adds the Roosevelt Corollary to
Monroe Doctrine (1904) - allows U.S. leaders
to intervene in Latin American affairs if
needed and authorizes U.S. to act as policeman
in the region

President Taft urges U.S. investment in Latin
Continued . . .
Sends troops to Nicaragua to protect investments
continued Policing the Hemisphere
President Wilson intervenes in Mexican
Poncho Villa raids towns in the American
Southwest causing the U.S. president to send
troops into Mexico after him.
Americans see U.S. as a good police officer
in Latin America
Latin Americans see U.S. as imperial power