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Chapter 10: Cell Cycle Notes

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Chapter 10: Cell Cycle Notes Why Divide? Cells divide for the survival of the individual organism Cells divide for the survival of the species (group of similar ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 10: Cell Cycle Notes


1
Chapter 10 Cell Cycle Notes
2
Why Divide?
The cell theory states that All cells come
from other living cells.
  • Cells divide for the survival of the individual
    organism
  • Cells divide for the survival of the species
    (group of similar organisms)

3
Cells divide for the survival of the individual
organism?
  • Cell division is used for growth, development,
    maintenance, and repair of the organism. This is
    carried out by
  • Mitosis- division of body cells to make more of
    the same kind of cell.
  • The parent cell is the original cell inside the
    organism that will divide.
  • The daughter cells are the two identical cells
    created when the parent cell divides.

4
Cells divide for the survival of the species ?
  • To reproduce more organisms that look similar to
    their parents
  • Sexual reproduction -two separate organisms
    produce egg and sperm that must combine or fuse
    together to produce offspring.
  • Meiosis? process of making egg cells and sperm
    cells.
  • Fertilization? the fusion of egg and sperm to
    produce a new organism.

5
Cells divide for the survival of the species ?
  • To reproduce more organisms that look similar to
    their parents
  • Asexual reproduction- offspring are produced by
    only one individual organism.
  • Spores are produced by mold and other fungi that
    grow all by themselves into more fungi.
  • Binary fission is the process of a bacterium
    splitting in two new bacteria

6
Cell Cycle
  • Cell Cycle- is defined as the life of a cell from
    the beginning of one interphase to the beginning
    of the next interphase. (with cell division in
    between)
  • Step (1.) Interphase (G1,S G2 phases)
  • Step (2.) Cell Division
  • Mitosis-division of nucleus
  • Cytokinesis- division of cytoplasm

7
Cell Cycle Interphase
  • Step 1 Interphase is the growth and
    development phase of the cell cycle. Three parts
  • (1.) Growth One or G1 phase
  • (2.) Synthesis or S phase (make DNA)
  • (3.) Growth Two or G2 phase

8
G1 phase
  • initial growth phase of the cell.
  • The cell grows and carries out its routine
    functions.
  • This is the longest phase of interphase.
  • Many cells stop growing and get stuck in this
    phase for the entire life of the organism (Ex.
    Nerve cells).
  • Other cells get stuck in G1 of interphase until
    cell division is needed for growth or repair.

9
S phase (synthesis)
  • is when DNA replication occurs.
  • After DNA replication the cell has two complete
    copies of its DNA.
  • At this point, the cell is committed to dividing.

10
G2 phase
  • the cell continues to grow and the final
    preparations for cell division are made.

11
G2
G1
S
12
Cell Cycle Cell Division
  • Step 2 Cell Division -the creation of two
    daughter cells from one parent cell.
  • Each daughter cell will have the same number of
    chromosomes as the parent cell.
  • Two Parts of Cell division
  • Mitosis and Cytokinesis

13
Cell Division Mitosis
  • Mitosis division of the nucleus. It is a
    synchronized set of events that will separate
    chromosomes, so that the two nuclei formed will
    be identical.
  • It is the beginning of cellular division.
  • (PMAT)-
  • Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
  • Mitosis Animation Simple

14
Cell Division Cytokinesis
  • Cytokinesis division of the cell cytoplasm. It
    is the physical separation of the cytoplasm into
    two new daughter cells.
  • It is the end of cell division.
  • New cells pinch off from each other in animal
    cells. In plants, a cell plate is formed, because
    plants also have cell walls to form.

15
Vocabulary
Slide 5
  • 1. Chromosome coiled DNA structures within the
    nucleus containing genetic information that is
    passed on from generation to generation
  • 2. Sister Chromatid one of two identical
    sister parts of a duplicated chromosome-formed
    during S phase
  • 3. Centromere (A) chromosome region that joins
    2 sister chromatids

16
Prophase 1st Phase
  • 1. DNA coils becomes chromosomes
  • 2. Centrioles move to opposite ends of cell
  • 3. Spindle fibers attach to chromosomes
  • 4. Nuclear membrane breaks down

17
Metaphase
  • 1. Spindle fibers push pull chromosomes until
    they line up across center of cell
  • 2. Centromere of each chromosome pair is
    attached to a spindle fiber

18
Anaphase
  • 1. Spindle fibers shorten paired chromatids
    separate
  • 2. Spindle fibers pull separated chromosomes to
    opposite ends of the cell
  • 3. Centromere of each pair divides now have
    individual chromosomes

19
Telophase
  • 1. Chromosomes begin to uncoil and decondense
  • 2. Nuclear membrane reforms around each new set
    of chromosomes

20
Cytokinesis
  • Cytokinesis is division of the cytoplasm
  • Distributes the organelles
  • In animal cells, the cell membrane pinches in
    two.
  • In plant cells, a cell plate forms across the
    middle.

21
What Phase Of the Cell Cycle Is It?
A
B
C
Anaphase
Cytokinesis
Telophase
D
E
F
Interphase
Prophase
Metaphase
22
CANCER
  • is the caused by uncontrolled cellular division.
  • Typically, most cells dont divide unless it is
    for repair or maintenance.
  • Cancerous cells keep dividing crowding out and
    stealing nutrients from healthy tissue.
  • Cancer kills when a mass of cancer cells called
    a tumor interferes with the functions of major
    organs.

23
BRAIN TUMOR
BREAST TUMOR
ORAL CANCER
PANCREATIC CANCER
24
The picture on the left shows a healthy right
lung, and a small discolored left lung. This
indicates the presence of tumors, as seen in the
picture on the right.
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