Matter%20and%20Composition - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Matter%20and%20Composition

Description:

Matter and Composition – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:38
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 21
Provided by: CobbCoun776
Category:
Tags:
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Matter%20and%20Composition

1
Matter and Composition
2
What is matter?
• MATTER is anything which has mass and occupies
space.
• Matter is all things that we can see, feel, and
smell in our daily living.

3
Kinetic Theory of Matter
• Molecules are always moving. This is known as the
kinetic theory of matter.
• Molecules move due to a temperature increase or
decrease
• We measure this kinetic energy with a thermometer
as temperature.
• The greater the materials kinetic internal
energy, the higher the temperature of that
material.

http//www.youtube.com/watch?featureendscreenNR
1vs-KvoVzukHo
4
Temperature vs. Heat
• Heat is the energy flow between objects of
different temperature.
• Heat and temperature are NOT the same.
• Temperature is a number that is related to the
average kinetic energy of the molecules of a
substance.

5
Temperature vs. Heat (continued)
• Heat is a measurement of the total energy in a
substance. That total energy is made up of not
only of the kinetic energies of the molecules of
the substance, but total energy is also made up
of the potential energies of the molecules.

6
Solids
Liquids
THREE (3) STATES OF MATTER
Gases
7
Phases of Matter
• Solid
• matter that has definite volume and shape.
• molecules are packed together tightly and move
slowly.
• Liquid
• matter that has definite volume but not shape.
• molecules of a liquid are loosely packed and move
with greater speed,
• a liquid can flow and spread.
• Gas
• matter that has no definite volume or shape.
Molecules of a gas are so loosely arranged and
move so rapidly that they will fill their
container.
• Plasma (similar to a gas)
• No definite volume or shape. Very loosely
arranged, reacts to electromagnetism, usually has
higher temperatures than other gases, most
abundant phase of matter in the universe.

8
(No Transcript)
9
Phase Change Descriptions
• Melting
• the change from solid to liquid.
• Freezing
• the change from liquid to solid.
• Vaporization
• the change from liquid to gas.
• Evaporation
• vaporization from the surface of a liquid.
• Boiling
• vaporization from within as well as from the
surface of a liquid.
• Condensation
• the change from gas to liquid.
• Sublimation
• the change from solid to gas.
• Deposition
• the change from gas to solid.

10
(No Transcript)
11
Phase Change Diagram
12
What is an atom?
• Atoms are composed of particles called protons,
electrons and neutrons.
• Protons carry a positive electrical charge
• Electrons carry a negative electrical charge
• Neutrons carry no electrical charge at all

13
(No Transcript)
14
What is an element?
• An element is a substance that is made entirely
from one type of atom.
• An ELEMENT is the simplest form of matter which
can not be changed further by chemical or
physical methods

15
What is a molecule?
• A molecule is formed when two or more atoms join
together chemically. A compound is a molecule
that contains at least two different elements.
All compounds are molecules but not all molecules
are compounds.

16
What is a compound?
• two or more different elements in a chemically
combined form
• has a fixed ratio determining the composition
• Example, a molecule of water contains two
hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom, (written as
H2O ).
• Water is always H2O and not HO or H3O.

17
What is a mixture?
• A mixture is a substance made by combining two or
more different materials in such a way that no
chemical reaction occurs.
• A mixture can usually be separated back into its
original components.
• Some examples of mixtures are a tossed salad,
salt water and a mixed bag of MM's candy.

18
Types of Mixtures
• A homogeneous mixture has the same uniform
appearance and composition throughout. Many
homogeneous mixtures are commonly referred to as
solutions.
• A heterogeneous mixture consists of visibly
different substances or phases. The three phases
or states of matter are gas, liquid, and solid.

19
What is a Solution?
• A solution is a mixture of two or more substances
in a single phase.
• At least two substances must be mixed in order to
have a solution.
• The substance in the smallest amount and the one
that dissolves or disperses is called the SOLUTE.
• The substance in the larger amount is called the
SOLVENT.

20
(No Transcript)
About PowerShow.com