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Matter%20and%20Composition

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Title: Matter%20and%20Composition


1
Matter and Composition
2
What is matter?
  • MATTER is anything which has mass and occupies
    space.
  • Matter is all things that we can see, feel, and
    smell in our daily living.

3
Kinetic Theory of Matter
  • Molecules are always moving. This is known as the
    kinetic theory of matter.
  • Molecules move due to a temperature increase or
    decrease
  • We measure this kinetic energy with a thermometer
    as temperature.
  • The greater the materials kinetic internal
    energy, the higher the temperature of that
    material.

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4
Temperature vs. Heat
  • Heat is the energy flow between objects of
    different temperature.
  • Heat and temperature are NOT the same.
  • Temperature is a number that is related to the
    average kinetic energy of the molecules of a
    substance.

5
Temperature vs. Heat (continued)
  • Heat is a measurement of the total energy in a
    substance. That total energy is made up of not
    only of the kinetic energies of the molecules of
    the substance, but total energy is also made up
    of the potential energies of the molecules.

6
Solids
Liquids
THREE (3) STATES OF MATTER
Gases
7
Phases of Matter
  • Solid
  • matter that has definite volume and shape.
  • molecules are packed together tightly and move
    slowly.
  • Liquid
  • matter that has definite volume but not shape.
  • molecules of a liquid are loosely packed and move
    with greater speed,
  • a liquid can flow and spread.
  • Gas
  • matter that has no definite volume or shape.
    Molecules of a gas are so loosely arranged and
    move so rapidly that they will fill their
    container.
  • Plasma (similar to a gas)
  • No definite volume or shape. Very loosely
    arranged, reacts to electromagnetism, usually has
    higher temperatures than other gases, most
    abundant phase of matter in the universe.

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9
Phase Change Descriptions
  • Melting
  • the change from solid to liquid.
  • Freezing
  • the change from liquid to solid.
  • Vaporization
  • the change from liquid to gas.
  • Evaporation
  • vaporization from the surface of a liquid.
  • Boiling
  • vaporization from within as well as from the
    surface of a liquid.
  • Condensation
  • the change from gas to liquid.
  • Sublimation
  • the change from solid to gas.
  • Deposition
  • the change from gas to solid.

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11
Phase Change Diagram
12
What is an atom?
  • Atoms are composed of particles called protons,
    electrons and neutrons.
  • Protons carry a positive electrical charge
  • Electrons carry a negative electrical charge
  • Neutrons carry no electrical charge at all

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14
What is an element?
  • An element is a substance that is made entirely
    from one type of atom.
  • An ELEMENT is the simplest form of matter which
    can not be changed further by chemical or
    physical methods

15
What is a molecule?
  • A molecule is formed when two or more atoms join
    together chemically. A compound is a molecule
    that contains at least two different elements.
    All compounds are molecules but not all molecules
    are compounds.

16
What is a compound?
  • two or more different elements in a chemically
    combined form
  • has a fixed ratio determining the composition
  • Example, a molecule of water contains two
    hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom, (written as
    H2O ).
  • Water is always H2O and not HO or H3O.

17
What is a mixture?
  • A mixture is a substance made by combining two or
    more different materials in such a way that no
    chemical reaction occurs.
  • A mixture can usually be separated back into its
    original components.
  • Some examples of mixtures are a tossed salad,
    salt water and a mixed bag of MM's candy.

18
Types of Mixtures
  • A homogeneous mixture has the same uniform
    appearance and composition throughout. Many
    homogeneous mixtures are commonly referred to as
    solutions.
  • A heterogeneous mixture consists of visibly
    different substances or phases. The three phases
    or states of matter are gas, liquid, and solid.

19
What is a Solution?
  • A solution is a mixture of two or more substances
    in a single phase.
  • At least two substances must be mixed in order to
    have a solution.
  • The substance in the smallest amount and the one
    that dissolves or disperses is called the SOLUTE.
  • The substance in the larger amount is called the
    SOLVENT.

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