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Food Allergen Labeling

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Title: Food Allergen Labeling


1
Food Allergen Labeling
2
Regulations
  • Revised January 2006
  • Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires food
    manufacturers to
  • List common allergens on labels in simple terms
    that adults and older children can understand
  • Listed in
  • Ingredients list
  • After the list
  • Right next to it

3
Food Allergens
  • List top eight, which account for 90 of all
    documented food allergies
  • Milk
  • Eggs
  • Peanuts
  • Tree nuts (such as almonds, cashews, walnuts
  • Fish (such as bass, cod, flounder)
  • Shellfish (such as crab, lobster, shrimp)
  • Soy
  • Wheat
  • Represent allergens most likely to cause a severe
    or life-threatening allergic reaction
    (anaphylaxis).

4
Food Label Questions
  • What foods are labeled?
  • Any domestic or imported packaged food regulated
    by FDA.
  • Whats included on label?
  • Lists type of allergens as well as any ingredient
    that contains a protein from the eight major food
    allergens
  • What foods arent labeled?
  • Fresh produce, fresh meat, and certain highly
    refined oils.
  • Foods that might inadvertently come into contact
    with a food allergen during growing, harvesting,
    or manufacturing.

5
Allergen Label Information
6
Non-Microbial Hazards
  • Biological, Chemical, Physical Hazards and
    Allergens

7
Biological Hazards
  • Seafood Toxins
  • Ciguatera toxin
  • Scombroid toxin
  • Shellfish toxins
  • Systemic fish toxins
  • Plant Toxins
  • Poisonous plants
  • Fungal Toxins
  • Poisonous mushrooms

8
Chemical Hazards
  • Toxic Metals
  • Lead, copper, brass, zinc, antimony, cadmium
  • Cleaning Agents
  • Detergents, sanitizers, polishers, abrasive
    cleaners, lubricants
  • Pesticides and insecticides
  • Food additives
  • Preservatives (nitrite and sulfites), flavor
    enhancers (MSG), nutritional additives (niacin)

9
Physical Hazards
  • Band-aids
  • Fingernails and nail polish
  • Jewelry
  • Broken light bulbs
  • Hair
  • Metal and wood
  • Chipped glass
  • Broken dinnerware

10
Allergens
  • 6 to 7 million Americans have food allergies.
  • Most common food allergens
  • Milk
  • Eggs
  • Fish
  • Shellfish
  • Wheat
  • Soy
  • Peanuts and tree nuts

11
Government Regulations
12
Who is responsible for our food?
  • Primary responsibility for enforcing federal
    regulations is USDA and FDA.
  • USDA is responsible for overseeing approximately
    20 of the food supply.
  • FDA is responsible for 80.
  • Other agencies also oversee various aspects of
    food safety.

13
USDA
  • Responsible for regulating
  • Red meat, poultry, and certain egg products
  • Key legislation that USDA enforces
  • Federal Meat Inspection Act
  • Poultry Products Inspection Act
  • Egg Products Inspection Act
  • Voluntary Inspection Program

14
Food and Drug Administration
  • Responsible for regulating
  • All other foods not regulated by USDA.
  • Food is food or drink for man or animal,
    chewing gum, and any food component.
  • Key legislation
  • Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act
  • Food Code
  • Low Acid Foods Registration and Process Filing

15
Environmental Protection Agency
  • Set pesticide residue tolerances or legal limits
    on how much residue that can be on particular
    foods.
  • FDA and USDA enforce those tolerances on their
    portions of the food supply.
  • Tolerance levels set for over 9,000 pesticides.

16
Department of Commerce
  • Oversee management of fisheries in the United
    States.
  • Responsible for seafood quality and grading.
  • Operate a voluntary inspection program for fish
    in conjunction with FDA.

17
Department of Treasury
  • Two divisions address food safety
  • Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms
  • U.S. Customs

18
Federal Trade Commission (FTC )
  • Works with FDA and USA over claims made by food
    manufacturers.
  • FTC oversees food advertising
  • FDA oversees food labeling
  • FTC requires that any objective claim made in
    advertising must be substantiated.

19
HACCP
  • Food Safety Plan

20
What is HACCP?
  • HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) is
    a systematic way to identify, evaluate, and
    control food safety hazards.
  • Hazards are biological, chemical, or physical
    agents likely to cause illness or injury if they
    are not controlled.
  • HACCP prevents food safety hazards rather than
    reacts to food safety hazards.
  • To develop a HACCP plan, one follows the seven
    principles.

21
Prerequisite Programs
  • Focus on employees, facilities, and equipment.
    Examples of prerequisite programs include
  • Illness policy
  • Cleaning and sanitizing procedures
  • Garbage removal
  • Pest control
  • Equipment selection
  • Employee hygiene

22
1 Conduct a hazard analysis
  • Identify hazards associated with a specific menu
    item.
  • Prepare flow diagram from receiving to service.
  • List likely hazards associated with each step.
  • Identify how to prevent the hazards at each step.
  • Hazards can be biological, chemical, or physical.
  • List hazards likely to occur and that will cause
    severe consequences if not controlled.
  • Hazards that are low risk and that are not likely
    do not need to be considered.

23
2 Determine CCPs
  • A control point is any point, step, or procedure
    where biological, physical, or chemical factors
    can be controlled.
  • A critical control point (CCP) is a point, step,
    or procedure where an identified hazard can be
    prevented, eliminated, or reduced to acceptable
    levels.
  • Critical control points are monitored much more
    frequently than are control points.

24
3 Establish critical limits
  • Establish criteria that must be met to prevent,
    eliminate, or the reduce the identified hazard at
    the CCP so that the food is safe to eat.
  • Examples of critical limits are
  • temperature, time, physical dimensions, water
    activity, pH, and available chlorine
  • Critical limits can come from regulatory
    standards and guidelines, scientific literature,
    experimental studies, and consultation with
    experts.

25
4 Establish monitoring procedures
  • Monitoring is a planned observation or
    measurement
  • to determine if a CCP is under control and
  • Examples of monitoring include
  • Visual observations
  • Temperature measurements
  • Time assessment
  • pH measurements
  • Water activity measurements

26
5 Establish corrective actions
  • Corrective actions focus on
  • what do when a food does not meet the critical
    limit.
  • Example of a corrective action
  • A hamburger is 140oF (50oC)
  • Critical limit -- Cook hamburger to 155oF (68oC)
    or hotter.
  • Continue cooking until hamburger is 155oF (68oC)
    or hotter.
  • Throwing out food might be a corrective action.
  • Maintain records of all corrective actions taken.

27
6 Verification procedures
  • Four phases needed for a HACCP plan
  • Determine that critical limits for all CCPS are
    sound.
  • Make sure that the establishments HACCP plan is
    being properly implemented.
  • Have regulatory personnel review the plan to make
    sure that it is being properly implemented.
  • Check the accuracy of all monitoring equipment.

28
7 Establish record keeping
  • The following make up the records of a HACCP Plan
  • List of HACCP team and their assigned
    responsibilities
  • Description of each menu item
  • Flow diagram for each menu item indicating CCPs
  • Hazards associated with each CCP and preventive
    measures
  • Critical limits
  • Monitoring procedures
  • Corrective actions plans
  • Record keeping procedures
  • Procedures for verification of the HACCP plan
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