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Rhetorical Appeals:


Rhetorical Appeals: Logos, Pathos, Ethos – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Rhetorical Appeals:

Rhetorical Appeals
  • Logos, Pathos, Ethos

Rhetoric A brief history
  • Rhetoric is the study of writing or speaking as a
    means of communication or persuasion.
  • The history of rhetoric reaches back to the
    beginnings of human culture.
  • Ancient Greek civilization gave birth to some of
    human historys great philosophersSocrates,
    Plato, and Aristotle.

Socrates Ancient Greek Philosopher
  • Socrates was an ancient Greek philosopher who is
    widely credited for laying the foundation for
    Western philosophy. The trial and execution of
    Socrates was the climax of his career and the
    central event of the dialogues of Plato. Socrates
    admits in court that he could have avoided the
    trial by abandoning philosophy and going home to
    mind his own business.

Plato Ancient Greek Philosopher
  • Plato was an ancient Greek philosopher, as well
    as a mathematician, writer of philosophical
    dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens.
    Plato is widely believed to have been a student
    of Socrates and to have been deeply influenced by
    his teacher's unjust death. Plato's brilliance as
    a writer and thinker can be witnessed by reading
    his Socratic dialogues.

Aristotle The Great Philosopher
  • Aristotle was a Greek philosopher, a student of
    Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. He
    wrote on diverse subjects, including physics,
    metaphysics, poetry (including theater), biology
    and zoology, logic, rhetoric, politics,
    government, and ethics. Along with Socrates and
    Plato, Aristotle was one of the most influential
    of the ancient Greek philosophers.
  • -en.wikipedia.org

Rhetorical Appeals
  • Aristotle named three rhetorical appeals
  • Logos logical appeal
  • Pathos emotional appeal
  • Ethos ethical appeal

The Rhetorical Triangle
  • The Greek philosophers also gave us the
    rhetorical triangle, which argues that all forms
    of communication are a conversation between the
    text, the audience and the author.

The Triple Threat logos, pathos, ethos
  • Most persuasive texts will use some combination
    of the three appeals to get their message across.
    Each of the appeals corresponds to a part of the
    rhetorical triangle (pictured here).

  • Logos appeals to logic and may include facts,
    statistics, or quotes
  • This information is used as evidence within the
    text to support your argument and persuade the

Example Nine out of ten health professionals
agree, an apple a day really does keep the doctor
Logos related vocabulary
  • Logos literally means the word
  • Dialogue is the exchange of words between two
  • A monologue is the delivery of words from one
    person without any expectation of a response.
  • A logo is a symbol that represents all the words
    (and ideas) associated with a company or brand.

Logos another example
  • Here we see a chart showing a correlation
    between the fall of pirates and rise of natural
    disasters. Are you convinced by these statistics?

Logos more examples(Can you identify the
logical appeals used in these cartoons?)
  • Pathos appeals to the emotions, needs and wants
    of the listener.
  • This strategy attempts to influence or manipulate
    the emotions and desires of the audience in order
    to persuade or convince the listener that their
    argument is true.

Can you name any propaganda techniques that rely
on emotional appeals?
Pathos related vocabulary
  • Sympathy and empathy are both emotional states
    and have to do with shared feelings.
  • Pathological liars have no feelings of guilt when
    they do not tell the truth.
  • If someone is pathetic, they are pitifully sad.

Pathos a second look(Can you identify the
emotional appeals used below?)
Pathos the power of story
  • Many of the stories we hear and read as children
    are written to appeal to our emotions so that we
    will be persuaded to follow certain social and
    moral codes (which brings us to the next part of
    the rhetorical triangleethos Can you name the
    moral of the story?)

  • Ethos appeals to our sense of ethics, including
    social and moral codes, trust, and credibility.
  • There are two kinds of ethosartistic and
  • Artistic ethos is created and sustained through
    the delivery of the message.
  • Inartistic ethos pre-exists and comes along with
    someones status or station.

For example
  • An officer of the law has inartistic ethos
    because of the station they hold (we trust them
    because of their position).
  • However, that same officer can lose our trust by
    their actions, as in the case of Rodney King.

For example
  • The President of the United States has inartistic
    ethos because of their station (we applaud
    Presidents when they enter a room to deliver a
  • However, the President can lose our trust through
    his or her actions (or through their artistic

Can you think of any other examples?
Ethos related vocabulary
  • Ethics are a set of moral principles, or a theory
    or system of moral values.
  • If you are an ethical person, you are considered
    a good person and you most likely follow the
  • If someone has a good work ethic, they have a
    strong belief in work as a moral good. In other
    words, they work hard because they believe it is
    the right thing to do.

Now that you know
  • see if you can identify how each of the
    appealslogos, pathos, and ethosare used in the
    following print advertisements. Here is your
    first chance to try out your knowledge The
    Magnus Harmonica!

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And NOW this
Now that we have looked closely at a selection
of advertisements, lets see if any of the things
you noticed match what I saw What appeals did
you notice and how were they used?
Did you notice ?
  • Pathos The expressions on their face
    communicate specific emotions. The word free is
    also shown in the description (this is a loaded
    or emotional word). The words, What you need is
    a Magnus suggest that the harmonica will be the
    solution to the mans unhappiness. The words,
    easy to play seem to say that the man will have
    no trouble playing the harmonica on the first
    try, so he will not be disappointed in his
    performance (and his unhappiness will be
    relieved). The ad goes on to say that you can
    learn to play in 5 minutes
  • Ethos The harmonica is sold by a company called
    International Plastic Harmonica Corporation.
    This suggests that this brand of harmonica is
    known around the world (although, if we look
    carefully, we notice that their business is run
    out of Newark, NJ).
  • Logos The description of the harmonica offers
    us specific facts and features that persuade us
    to purchase the harmonicainstructions in every
    packagecan be washed in soap and water They
    also offer us a choice of colors and pricing

Pathos Everyone shown in this image is smiling.
Happiness seems to surround them as they sit
together in what seems to be a ski lodge. They
are dressed warmly and are sitting near a glowing
fireplace. The red of the cigarette package
stands out against the black and white imagethis
seems to suggest that the owner of the cigarettes
might also distinguish himself (or stand out
from the crowd) by owning the cigarettes. Loaded
words like smooth, finest quality,
distinguished," and finest money can buy
suggest wealthy and upper class living. Ethos
Pall Mall attempts to give their argument
credibility by showing us a picture of one man
offering the cigarettes to another. The man
offering the cigarettes seems slightly older than
the man receiving the cigarettes, maybe
suggesting that the older mans experience
qualifies him to make a recommendation. Logos
Interestingly, there is little or no evidence of
a logical appeal, although the words, guard
against throat scratch seem to suggest that
smoking other brands will cause your throat to
Pathos As in the other advertisement, everyone
shown in this image is smiling. Happiness seems
to surround them as they sit together in the
seats of a Greyhound bus. Everyone is formally
dressed and neatly groomed. The friendly way to
travel suggests that driving in a car, or riding
your bike, are more aggressive. The ad also
states, The people you meet aboard a Greyhound
somehow seem more neighborly, more relaxed,
easier to talk to. In fact, it looks like this
group of people could have come from the same
neighborhood. Ethos The ethical appeal is
harder to see. Greyhound seems to be relying on
the credibility of its name, and its
presentation as a safe and clean environment in
the advertisement. Logos Greyhound uses its
low fares as evidence to support the passengers
friendly attitude a person who has bought a
travel bargain is sure to be in a pleasant frame
of mind. They dont offer any specific pricing
information, however.
Pathos The man appears to be in the role of the
husband returning home to his wife after a long
day of work. He reaches for her, hat in hand, and
instead of the royal welcome he expects, the
man is greeted by the scrutinizing stare of his
wife, whose expression seems to communicate
suspicion, anxiety and possibly disgust. The font
exclaims INFECTIOUS DANDRUFF! Infectious is a
loaded or emotional word that carries a negative
connotation similar in tone to the expression on
the womans face. Ethos The ethical argument
is harder to see and seems connected to the
pseudoscience (false scientific facts and
information) pictured on the mans
shoulder. Logos The close-up image of the
germs, flakes, and scales pictured on the mans
shoulder attempt to create a sense of scientific
evidence, although they ultimately come across as
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