Developmental psychology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Developmental psychology PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 769157-ZTRhY



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Developmental psychology

Description:

Developmental psychology The branch of psychology that studies how people change over the lifespan Chromosome A long, threadlike structure composed of twisted ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:66
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 92
Provided by: TECHNO238
Learn more at: http://www.ghaps.org
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Developmental psychology


1
Developmental psychology

2
  • The branch of psychology that studies how people
    change over the lifespan

3
Chromosome

4
  • A long, threadlike structure composed of twisted
    parallel strands of DNA found in the nucleus of
    the cell

5
Gene

6
  • The basic unit of heredity that directs the
    development of a particular characteristic the
    individual unit of DNA instructions on a
    chromosome

7
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

8
  • The chemical basis of heredity carries the
    genetic instructions in the cell

9
Genotype

10
  • The underlying genetic makeup of a particular
    organism, including the genetic instructions for
    traits that are not actually displayed

11
Phenotype

12
  • The observable traits or characteristics of an
    organism as determined by the interaction of
    genetics and environmental factors

13
Dominant gene
  • In a pair of genes, the gene containing genetic
    instructions that will be expressed whether
    paired with another dominant gene or with a
    recessive gene

14
Recessive gene

15
  • In a pair of genes, the gene containing genetic
    instructions that will not be expressed unless
    pair with another recessive gene

16
Sex chromosomes

17
  • Chromosomes designated as X or Y that determine
    biological sex the 23rd pair of chromosomes in
    humans

18
Sex-linked recessive characteristics

19
  • Traits determined by recessive genes located on
    the X chromosome in males, these characteristics
    require only one recessive gene to be expressed

20
Prenatal stage
21
  • The stage of development before birth divided
    into the germinal, embryonic, and fetal periods

22
Germinal period

23
  • The first two weeks of prenatal development

24
Embryonic period

25
  • The second period of prenatal development,
    extending from the third week through the eighth
    week

26
Teratogens

27
  • Harmful agents or substances that can cause
    malformations or defects in an embryo or fetus

28
Fetal period

29
  • The third and longest period of prenatal
    development, extending from the ninth week until
    birth

30
Temperament

31
  • Inborn predispositions to consistently behave and
    react in a certain way

32
Attachment

33
  • The emotional bond that forms between an infant
    and caregiver(s), especially his or her parents

34
Comprehension vocabulary

35
  • The words that are understood by an infant or
    child

36
Production vocabulary

37
  • The words that an infant or child understands and
    can speak

38
Sensorimotor stage

39
  • In Piagets theory, the first stage of cognitive
    development, from birth to about age 2 the
    period during which the infant explores the
    environment and acquires knowledge through
    sensing and manipulating objects

40
Object permanence

41
  • The understanding that an object continues to
    exist even when it can no longer be seen

42
Preoperational stage

43
  • In Piagets theory, the second stage of cognitive
    development, which lasts from about age 2 to age
    7 characterized by increasing use of symbols and
    prelogical thought process

44
Symbolic thought

45
  • The ability to use words, images, and symbols to
    represent the world

46
Egocentrism

47
  • In Piagets theory, the inability to take another
    persons perspective or point of view

48
Irreversibility

49
  • In Piagets theory,the inability to mentally
    reverse a sequence of events or logical operations

50
Centration

51
  • In Piagets theory, the tendency to focus,or
    center , on only once aspect of a situation and
    ignore other important aspects of the situation

52
Conservation

53
  • In Piagets theory, the understanding that two
    equal quantities remain equal even though the
    form or appearance is rearranged, as long as
    nothing is added or subtracted

54
Concrete operational stage
55
  • In Piagets theory, the third stage of cognitive
    development, which lasts from about age 7 to
    adolescence characterized by the ability to
    think logically about concrete objects and
    situations

56
Formal operational

57
  • In Piagets theory, the fourth stage of cognitive
    development, which lasts from adolescence through
    adulthood characterized by the ability to think
    logically about abstract principles and
    hypothetical situations

58
Information-processing model of cognitive
development

59
  • The model that views cognitive development as a
    process that is continuous over the lifespan and
    that studies the development of basic mental
    processes such as attention, memory, and problem
    solving

60
Adolescence

61
  • The transitional stage between late childhood and
    the beginning of adulthood, during which sexual
    maturity is reached

62
Identity

63
  • A persons definition or description of himself
    or herself, including the values, beliefs, and
    ideals that guide the individuals behavior

64
Moral reasoning

65
  • The aspect of cognitive development that has to
    do with how an individual reasons about moral
    decisions

66
Menopause

67
  • The natural cessation of menstruation and the end
    of reproductive capacity in women

68
Activity theory of aging

69
  • The psychosocial theory that life satisfaction in
    late adulthood is highest when people maintain
    the level of activity the displayed earlier in
    life

70
Authoritarian parenting style
71
  • Parenting style in which parents are demanding
    and unresponsive toward their childrens needs or
    wishes

72
Permissive parenting style

73
  • Parenting style in which parents are extremely
    tolerant and not demanding permissive-indulgent
    parents are responsive to their children, whereas
    permissive indifferent parents are not

74
Authoritative parenting style

75
  • Parenting style in which parents set clear
    standards for their childrens behavior but are
    also responsive to their childrens needs and
    wishes

76
Induction

77
  • A discipline technique that combines parental
    control with explaining why a behavior is
    prohibited

78
Mary D. Salter Ainsworth (1913-1999)

79
  • American psychologist who devised the Strange
    Situation procedure to measure attachment
    contributed to attachment theory

80
Renee Baillargeon (b. 1954)

81
  • Canadian-born psychologist whose studies of
    cognitive development during infancy using visual
    rather than manual tasks challenged beliefs about
    the age at which object permanence first appears

82
Noam Chomsky (b. 1928)

83
  • American linguist who proposed that people have
    an innate understanding of the basic principles
    of language, which he called a universal
    grammar.

84
Erik Erikson (1902-1994)

85
  • German-born American psychoanalyst who proposed
    an influential theory of psychological
    development throughout the lifespan

86
Lawrence Kohlberg (1927-1987)

87
  • American psychologist who proposed an influential
    theory of moral development

88
Jean Piaget (1896-1980)

89
  • Swiss child psychologist whose influential theory
    proposed that children progress through distinct
    stages of cognitive development

90
Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934)
91
  • Russian psychologist who stressed the importance
    of social and cultural influences in cognitive
    development
About PowerShow.com