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The present tense

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The present tense The meaning The formation 1 The formation 2 Conjugations Irregulars Present vs. perfect Look to the principle part! Exempla Cautions – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The present tense


1
The present tense
  • The meaning
  • The formation 1
  • The formation 2
  • Conjugations
  • Irregulars
  • Present vs. perfect
  • Look to the principle part!
  • Exempla
  • Cautions

2
The present tense use
  • The present tense is translated
  • -he _________s
  • -he is ________ ing
  • -he used to_________
  • index

3
The Present tense is formed by using the 1st and
2nd principle parts of the verb
  • Porto, portare, portavi, portatus
  • Doceo, docere, docui, doctus
  • Mitto, mittere, misi, missus
  • Audio, audire, audivi, auditus
  • index Then what?

4
The endings give the directions
  • If the 1st two forms show
  • -o, -are, the present ending is at porto,
    portare portat
  • -eo, -ere is et doceo, docere docet
  • -o, -ere is it mitto, mittere mittit
  • -io, -ire is also it audio, audire audit
  • A few important verbs use io, -ere, but they
    show it as well
  • rapio, rapere rapit
  • index

5
Conjugations
  • These distinctions among verb types are known as
    conjugations, and are numbered
  • 1st Porto, portare, portavi, portatus
  • 2nd Doceo, docere, docui, doctus
  • 3rd Mitto, mittere, misi, missus
  • 4th Audio, audire, audivi, auditus
  • (3rd io) rapio, rapere, rapui, raptus
  • index What about irregulars?

6
Irregular presents
  • Fero, ferre, tuli, latus fert
  • Eo, ire, ivi, itus it
  • Possum, posse, potui potest
  • Volo, velle, volui vult
  • Sum esse, fui est
  • Fio, fieri, factus sum fit
  • These irregulars compounds follow the same rules
  • refert, exit, adest, mavult, profit
  • index

7
Present vs. perfectthe it dilemma
  • The challenge in learning the present endings is
    that now the ending it has two jobs. In some
    situations -it expresses the present and in other
    situations the perfect tense.
  • How do you tell?
  • Look to the principle part!
  • index

8
The principle part is the answer
  • When a verb ends in it, the question is to
    which principle part is the it added?
  • To the first?then the verb is present
  • To the third?--then it is perfect
  • pono, ponere, posui, positus
  • ponit present posuit perfect
  • mitto, mittere, misi, missus
  • mittit present, misit perfect
  • Further exempla index

9
Exempla of present and perfect forms in -it
  • Curro, currere, cucurri, cursus
  • curr it present he runs
  • cucurri t perfect he ran
  • Accedo, accedere, accessi, accessurus
  • acced it present it approaches
  • accessi t perfect it approached
  • Audio, audire, audivi, auditus
  • aud it present she hears
  • audivi t perfect she hears
  • Index cautions

10
Cautions
  • Some verbs only distinguish tenses by means of a
    long vowel
  • invenio, invenire, inveni, inventus
  • invenit he finds invenit he found
  • A very few verbs show no difference in form
  • bibo, bibere, bibi, bibitus
  • bibit she drinks or she drank
  • (cf. she put it down today, he put down in
    yesterday)
  • index
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