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Chapter 10/11 PLANT REPRODUCTION

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P. 272 Chapter 10/11 PLANT REPRODUCTION Growing Seasons: annual lives one growing season. ex. petunia 2) Biennials - lives two growing seasons. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 10/11 PLANT REPRODUCTION


1
Chapter 10/11 PLANT REPRODUCTION
  • P. 272

2
Growing Seasons
  • annual
  • lives one growing season.
  • ex. petunia

ex. marigold
3
2) Biennials - lives two growing seasons.
  • Ex. Carrot
  • (it reproduces in the second year)
  • - most herbaceous stem plants are annuals or
    biennials.

4
3) Perennials - live year after year.
  • Ex. Maple tree, grass.
  • - usually woody stem plants.

5
  • - each year the stem grows wider and forms the
    annual growth ring.

- created by the cambium.
6
ANGIOSPERM REPRODUCTION
  • Flower Anatomy
  • (p. 285)
  • Stamen
  • - the male part of the flower.

Anther - contains pollen grains. Filament -
thread-like structure that holds up the anther.
7
  • STAMEN
  • - can you identify which is the anther and the
    filament?

8
2) Pistil - the female part of the flower.
  • Stigma - covered with a sticky substance to
    capture pollen.
  • Style - the thin neck to support the stigma.
  • Ovary - holds the ovules which turn into seeds
    after fertilization.

9
Which is the pistil? Which is the stamen?
10
  • Sepals
  • leaves which protect the developing petals.
  • Petals
  • protect the stamen and pistil.
  • often colorful and have an odor to attract
    insects for pollination.

11
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13
Perfect Flowers
  • - have both male and female parts.

14
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15
Imperfect Flowers
  • has a pistil or a stamen - not both.
  • needs another plant for pollination.
  • Ex. cottonwood tree

16
ASSIGNMENTWorksheet Seed Reproduction
17
Pollination
  • - the transfer of pollen from an anther to a
    stigma.
  • Cross-pollination
  • - pollen from a anther to a different plants
    stigma
  • - by wind, insects.

18
Self-pollination
  • - when the stigma receives pollen from the anther
    of the same flower.

- must be a perfect flower
19
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20
More Pollinators
21
Fertilization
  • occurs after pollination.
  • a pollen tube grows thru the style.
  • The pollen (a male sperm cell) then fertilizes
    the ovule which turns into a seed.

22
Pollen tube example Corn silk
23
Fertilization
24
After pollination, the petals will fall off. Why?
  • Pollination has been completed. The petals are no
    longer needed.

25
  • After fertilization, the ovary develops into a
    fruit.
  • - it holds and protects the seeds.

26
Types of Fruit1) Fleshy
Ex. orange, tomato, cherry.
27
2) Dry
  • Ex. Beans, corn, peas, walnuts.

28
Seed Anatomy
Embryo Seed Coat Cotyledon
29
ASSIGNMENTWORKSHEETFLOWER ANATOMY
30
Seed Dissemination
  • - how seeds can be spread. (p. 289)
  • Carried by wind
  • - winged fruit
  • Ex. dandelions,
  • cottonwood

31
2) Carried by animals
  • Ex. Cockle burrs caught in fur.

32
3) Eaten by animals
  • - excreted with the waste.

33
PLANT PROCESSES
  • GAS EXCHANGE
  • - occurs in the leafs stomates.
  • CO2 enters thru the stomate.
  • O2 exits thru the stomate.
  • necessary for photosynthesis.

34
Water vapor also escapes through the stomates.
  • - called transpiration.

35
More transpiration.
36
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
  • the process of turning light energy into food.
  • the needed chemical is chlorophyll.
  • it traps sunlight.

37
- it also needs CO2 and H2O to make
food and oxygen.
38
6CO2 6H2O light C6H12O6 6O2
chlorophyll
6 molecules of carbon dioxide and 6 molecules of
water.
One molecule of glucose and 6 molecules of oxygen.
C6H12O6 glucose - a sugar which is used as
energy or stored in roots and stems.
39
6CO2 6H2O light C6H12O6 6O2
chlorophyll
The oxygen is mostly released as a waste. - some
is used to break down food. Photosynthesis occurs
in the chloroplasts located in the palisade layer
of the leaf.
40
Importance of Photosynthesis
  • 1. Provides food for almost all of the
    consumers on Earth.

41
  • 2. Provides oxygen (90) for organisms and
    removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

42
RESPIRATION
  • the process used to break down food into energy.
  • it also occurs in plants.

C6H12O6 6O2 6CO2 6H2O energy
  • it occurs in the cells mitochondria.
  • respirations energy is used to build and repair
    cells and tissues.

43
Photosynthesis and respirations raw materials
are linked together
44
WorksheetPhotosynthesis and Respiration
45
PLANT RESPONSES
  • - the response of a plant to a stimulus is a
    tropism. p.312
  • Thigmotropism
  • - when touched, a plant closes its leaves.
    (p. 311)
  • Ex. Venus Flytrap

46
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47
ASSIGNMMENT
  • WORKSHEET
  • PHOTOSYNTHESIS RESPIRATION
  • QUESTIONS
  • P. 296 8,13,17
  • P. 322 11,13,14,17

48
  • 2) Phototropism
  • - the plant grows towards light.

49
  • 3) Geotropism or Gravitropism
  • - the plant roots grow downward
  • - stems grow upward.
  • - in response to gravity.

50
Tropisms are controlled by plant hormones called
auxins.
  • Ex. for phototropism, the auxins move to the
    shady side of the stem.
  • - the auxins create more growth on that side
    causing the stem to bend into the light.

51
Photoperiodism
  • a flowering response to the changes in the amount
    of daylight.
  • plants need a certain amount of darkness to
    flower.

52
Long-day Plants
  • - need short nights to flower.

Ex. zinnias, potatoes
53
Day-neutral Plants
  • - can flower over a wide range of night lengths.

Ex. marigolds, corn.
54
Short-day Plants
  • - need long nights to flower.

Ex. poinsettia
55
Photoperiodism ensures there are lots of
pollinators when the plant flowers - less
competition.
56
ASSIGNMENTWORKSHEETPLANT PROCESSES
57
Seed Germination (p. 290)
  • when a seed sprouts.
  • conditions must be right
  • moisture/warm temps.

- if not, the seed remains dormant waiting for
good conditions.
58
  • The plant uses the food stored in the cotyledon
    until photosynthesis can begin. (p. 291).

59
Asexual Reproduction
- only one parent necessary.
  • Natural
  • - some plants produce runners.
  • - where it touches the ground, a new plant is
    formed.
  • Ex. strawberry

60
B) Grafting
  • - attaching part of one plant to another.

61
  • Grafting is commonly done with trees - taking the
    best traits and combining them together.

Ex. orange tree
Very hardy Sour fruit
Weak - intolerant Sweet fruit
62
C) Water propagation
63
ASSIGNMENTWORKSHEETCHAPTER REVIEW
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