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Aquatic Ecosystems

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Aquatic Ecosystems Chapter 7 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Aquatic Ecosystems


1
Aquatic Ecosystems
  • Chapter 7

2
Aquatic Environments Types and Characteristics
  • Aquatic Life zones
  • Saltwater
  • Freshwater

3
The Aquatic World
4
Dont forget about Coral Reef and Mangrove Forest
5
Organisms in Aquatic Life Zones
  • Phytoplankton
  • Zooplankton
  • Nekton
  • Benthos
  • Decomposers

6
Factors that Limit Life with Water Depth
  • Temperature
  • Sunlight (photosynthesis in photic zone, euphotic
    zone)
  • Dissolved oxygen content
  • Availability of nutrients ( limits net primary
    productivity)

7
Saltwater Life Zones
  • Open ocean
  • Coastal zone
  • Estuaries
  • Coastal wetlands
  • Mangrove swamps
  • Intertidal zones (rocky shores and barrier
    beaches)
  • Coral reefs

8
The Blue (Ocean) Planet
Ocean hemisphere
Land-ocean hemisphere
9
Ocean Provinces
Ocean provinces
10
Marine Ecosystems
Natural Capital
Marine Ecosystems
Ecological Services
Economic Services
Climate moderation CO2 absorption Nutrient
cycling Waste treatment and dilution Reduced
storm impact (mangrove, barrier islands, coastal
wetlands) Habitats and nursery areas for marine
and terrestrial species Genetic resources and
biodiversity Scientific information
Food Animal and pet feed (fish
meal) Pharmaceuticals Harbors and
transportation routes Coastal habitats for
humans Recreation Employment Offshore oil and
natural gas Minerals Building materials
11
Biological Zones in Open Sea
  • Euphotic zone
  • Bathyal zone
  • Abyssal zone

12
Major Life Zones in the Ocean
High tide
Open Sea
Sun
Low tide
Coastal Zone
Sea level
Euphotic Zone
Photosynthesis
Estuarine Zone
Continental shelf
Bathyal Zone
Twilight
Abyssal Zone
Darkness
13
Sediment Plume in an Estuary
14
Salt Marsh Ecosystem
Herring gulls
Peregrine falcon
Producer to primary consumer
Snowy egret
Cordgrass
Short-billed dowitcher
Primary to secondary consumer
Marsh periwinkle
Secondary to higher-level consumer
Phytoplankton
Smelt
All producers and consumers to decomposers
Zooplankton and small crustaceans
Soft-shelled clam
Clamworm
Bacteria
15
Salt Marsh in Lake Titicaca, Peru
16
Beach Organisms
Hermit crab
Shore crab
Sea star
Rocky Shore Beach
High tide
Periwinkle
Sea urchin
Anemone
Mussel
Low tide
Sculpin
Barnacles
Kelp
Sea lettuce
Monterey flatworm
Nudibranch
17
Beach Organisms
Barrier beach
Beach flea
Peanut worm
Tiger beetle
Blue crab
Clam
Dwarf olive
High tide
Sandpiper
Ghost shrimp
Silversides
Low tide
Mole shrimp
White sand macoma
Sand dollar
Moon snail
18
Primary and Secondary Beach Dunes
Ocean
Beach Intensive recreation, no building
Primary Dune No direct passage or building
Trough Limited recreation and walkways
Secondary Dune No direct passage or building
Bay or Lagoon Intensive recreation
Back Dune Most suitable for development
Bay shore No filling
Grasses or shrubs
Taller shrubs
Taller shrubs and trees
19
Coral Reef Ecosystem
Gray reef shark
Green sea turtle
Sea nettle
Producer to primary consumer
Fairy basslet
Blue tangs
Primary to secondary consumer
Parrot fish
Sergeant major
Brittle star
Banded coral shrimp
Hard corals
Algae
Secondary to higher-level consumer
Phytoplankton
Coney
Symbiotic algae
Zooplankton
Blackcap basslet
All producers and consumers to decomposers
Sponges
Moray eel
Bacteria
20
Major Threats to Coral Reefs
Natural Capital Degradation
Coral Reefs
Ocean warming Soil erosion Algae growth from
fertilizer runoff Mangrove destruction Coral
reef bleaching Rising sea levels Increased UV
exposure from ozone depletion Using cyanide and
dynamite to harvest coral reef fish Coral
removal for building material, aquariums, and
jewelry Damage from anchors, ships, and tourist
divers
21
Human Impacts on Marine Ecosystems
Natural Capital Degradation
Marine Ecosystems
Half of coastal wetlands lost to agriculture and
urban development Over one-third of mangrove
forests lost since 1980 to agriculture,
development, and aquaculture shrimp farms About
10 of worlds beaches eroding because of coastal
development and rising sea level Ocean bottom
habitats degraded by dredging and trawler fishing
boats Over 25 of coral reefs severely damaged
and 11 have been destroyed
22
Freshwater Life Zones
  • Standing water (lakes)
  • Flowing water (streams)

23
Major Services of Freshwater Systems
Natural Capital
Freshwater Systems
Ecological Services
Economic Services
Food Drinking water Irrigation
water Hydroelectricity Transportation corridors
Recreation Employment
Climate moderation Nutrient cycling Waste
treatment and dilution Flood control Groundwater
recharge Habitats for aquatic and terrestrial
species Genetic resources and biodiversity Scien
tific information
24
Life Zones in Lakes
  • Littoral zone
  • Limnetic zone
  • Profundal zone
  • Benthic zone

25
Zones in a Temperate Lake
Sunlight
Painted turtle
Green frog
Blue-winged teal
Muskrat
Pond snail
Littoral zone
Limnetic zone
Diving beetle
Plankton
Profundal zone
Benthic zone
Northern pike
Yellow perch
Bloodworms
26
Animation
Lake zonation interaction
27
Animation
Lake turnover interaction
28
Animation
Trophic nature of lakes interaction
29
Freshwater Streams and Rivers
  • Surface water
  • Runoff
  • Watershed or drainage basin
  • Source, transition, and floodplain zones

30
Stream Zones
Rain and snow
Lake
Glacier
Rapids
Waterfall
Tributary
Flood plain
Oxbow lake
Salt marsh
Ocean
Delta
Deposited sediment
Source Zone
Transition Zone
Water
Sediment
Floodplain Zone
Fig. 5-36, p. 106
31
Freshwater Inland Wetlands
  • Importance of wetlands
  • Types of wetlands
  • Marshes
  • Swamps
  • Prairie potholes
  • Floodplains
  • Arctic tundra
  • Seasonal wetlands

32
Human Impacts on Freshwater Systems
  • Dams, diversions and canals
  • Flood control levees and dikes
  • Pollutants from cities and farmlands
  • Wetland destruction

33
Animation
El Niño Southern Oscillation interaction.
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