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Changing Pedagogical Spaces: Difference, Diversity and Inclusion


Changing Pedagogical Spaces: Difference, Diversity and Inclusion Professor Penny Jane Burke Director of the Paulo Freire Institute-UK UALL annual conference 2014 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Changing Pedagogical Spaces: Difference, Diversity and Inclusion

Changing Pedagogical Spaces Difference,
Diversity and Inclusion
  • Professor Penny Jane Burke
  • Director of the Paulo Freire Institute-UK
  • UALL annual conference 2014

Marketising Diversity
pedagogical stratification
  • To examine the effects of global neo-liberalism
    on pedagogies in higher education
  • increasing pressure for universities to position
    themselves as world-class
  • to compete in a highly stratified field driven by
    discourses of excellence league tables
  • See Pedagogical Stratification The Changing
    Landscape of Higher Education (Stevenson, Burke
    and Whelan, 2014) York Higher Education Academy

Neoliberal regimes
  • imperative to develop human capital
  • massification - achieved by increasing student
  • Neoliberal individualisation - responsibility
    reward - financial return to individual graduate
  • WP increases student numbers - therefore the
    HEIs market

Marketised HE
  • marketized frameworks likely to erode the
    potential of higher education to contribute to
  • Market mechanisms exert pressure on
    universities to comply with consumer demand
  • From Naidoo, Rajani (2003).
  • delivery styles efficiency

discourses of flexibility
  • flexible provision to address diversified market
  • individualise the requirement to be flexible
  • doing more with less
  • target-setting - individual value
  • insidious inequalities -made invisible through
    dominant discourses of teaching and learning in
    the neoliberal university

Meritocracy HE should be available to all who
have the potential to benefit from university
study, regardless of social background
potential tends to be profoundly shaped by
particular values, perspectives and judgements
e.g. being witty, dressing with style and being
Discourses of derision deficit
  • the (disadvantged) student is often derisively
    constructed as lacking determination, discipline
    or the passion to learn
  • subjects those associated with disadvantage,
    diversity and difference to processes of
  • focal point of a project of transformation is
    turned on to the individual

Reconceptualising pedagogies
  • we form reform our identities in through
    pedagogical spaces shaped by the emotional
  • emotions produce the very surfaces and
    boundaries that allow the individual and the
    social to be delineated as if they are objects
    (Ahmed, 2004)
  • Pedagogical histories connected to dividing
    practices (Foucault, 1977)

Frasers concept of social justice
  • On the status model, misrecognition is neither a
    psychical deformation nor an impediment to
    ethical self-realization. Rather it constitutes
    an institutionalized relation of subordination
    and a violation of justice. To be misrecognized,
    accordingly, is not to suffer distorted identity
    or impaired subjectivity as a result of being
    depreciated by others. It is rather to be
    constituted by institutionalized patterns of
    cultural value in ways that prevent one from
    participating as a peer in social life. On the
    status model then, misrecognition is relayed not
    through deprecatory attitudes or re-standing
    discourses, but rather through social
    institutions. It arises, more precisely, when
    institutions structure interaction according to
    cultural norms that impede parity of
    participation (Fraser, 2003 29, my emphasis).

blaming the victim
  • When misrecognition is identified with internal
    distortions in the structure of the
    self-conscious of the oppressed, it is but a
    short step to blaming the victim ()
    Misrecognition is a matter of externally manifest
    and publicly verifiable impediments to some
    peoples standing as full members of society. To
    redress it, again, means to overcome
    subordination. This in turn means changing
    institutions and social practices (Fraser, 2003
    31, my emphasis).

McNays critique
  • McNay (2008) critiques Frasers objectivist
  • Leads to misrecognition being considered
    primarily as externally imposed injuries rather
    than as lived identities (McNay, 2008 150).

Embodied ident
  • Embodied identity helps to think through the
    ways different bodies take up and use the
    different higher education spaces available, and
    the ways that higher education spaces and
    practices are constructed and re/shaped in
    relation to the different bodies that move
    through and are positioned within them (Burke,

Formations of Gender and HE Pedagogies (GaP)
  • Research team PJ Burke (PI), Professor Gill
    Crozier, Professor Becky Francis, Dr Barbara Read
    (School of Education) and Julie Hall and Jo Peat
    (Learning Teaching Enhancement Unit)
  • 64 students (across 6 subject areas) --
    individually interviewed
  • 18 Executive Student Consultants participated
    intensively across a range of methods and project
  • 23 HE lecturers (from 6 subject areas)
    participated in 12 focus group discussions
  • 20 observations of classroom practice -- with
    reflective meetings as a follow-up.
  • 17 students and 22 staff from 16 additional HEIs
    across England participated in intensive series
    of workshops and discussions.

internalising processes of misrecognition
  • Discussions can make me feel anxious. I am scared
    of being stupid like and then no one says
    something and I am thinking it and the lecturer
    points it out. Then I think I should have said it
    to show how clever I was but I didnt and no one
    else did. But I am just too scared to put my hand
    up or just say it. Sometimes I even feel nauseous
    like I want to be sick just to say a sentence.
    And Im not a shy person but Im just very
    nervous (female student).

shame is a social emotion
  • Shame exists with reference to how we
    anticipate others may see and reject us but
    it is experienced as internalized disappointment
    with self i.e. it exists with reference to how we
    judge our own shortcomings, feelings of failure
    or inadequacy (Raphael Reed et al, 2007 19).

feminisation of teaching and learning
  • Part of me thinks its not my job to look after
    them. I have a husband and 2 children at home
    that I have to look after, I have to get these
    students through, Im not their mother, I have no
    intention of being their mother and sometimes I
    get really cross that there is an expectation
    from the university, from my PC and from society,
    that I am going to mind these students. (Female
  • I feel because of retention rates and all these
    systems which are in place when you first I am
    expected to be caring, more caring than I
    actually want to be. (Male lecturer)

Fearand emotion as a tool
  • Its perhaps fear of taking initiative is it
    fear have we created that perhaps a bit? (Male
  • Theres something about some courses thats
    feeding into that passivity, this kind of Ill
    just stand at the front and talk and youll just
    listen. (Female Lecturer)
  • Emotions as tools that can be used by subjects
    in the project of life and career enhancement
    (Goleman, 1995 in Ahmed, 2004)

problem of differentiation proximity
  • Female Student And here university seems like
    heaven in this respect, no matter if you are a
    girl or a boy if you talk you are listened to,
    you are heard. So its so much different than
    school. We have two girls in our class, they are
    so loud, they are sothey dont pay attention,
    seriously they couldnt care less about what we
    are talking about, and they continue to
    interrupt and stuff. There are guys that dont
    give anything to the course, but still its not
    because they are guys or girls, because they are
    people like that, they dont care (Female

marking out difference
  • I would say, it sounds so bad, I would say like
    maybe eighty percent, this is just me, this is a
    guestimate, eighty percent of people who come
    from a lower class, whose parents didnt go to
    university, might not address learning in general
    with as quite a passion as those who maybe came
    from middleclass, or those who had their parents
    who went to university. Like going back to what
    I said when I came here I saw university as the
    way to finish it, because college wasnt. I went
    to a secondary school which although it was state
    it was quite top end, we had the PMs children
    there, and from there you always had high
    expectations bred into that sort of way of
    thinking. You moved into that way of thinking,
    that that is the way forward, and that is a
    normal thing to do, whereas people who went to
    other schools might not see it like that, like
    some say oh, I can get a job without a degree,
    they dont reallyor they say I only need three
    GCSEs, they dont aim for high enough because
    they dont know any higher (Male Student)).

Pedagogies the perpetuation of a politics of
  • But its impossible to educate, you know, in the
    sense that we dont have time to sit down and
    navel gaze about how we can engage these people
    better in order to do this, that and the other or
    do we look right back at our admissions criteria
    and say, ok, we only choose the ones who are
    like us.? (Female lecturer)

Teaching Inclusively Changing Pedagogical Spaces
  • A key concept is praxis and this emphasises the
    dialogic relationship between critical reflection
    and action. in order to create inclusive
    teaching practices, conceptual resources are
    essential for reshaping both understanding and
    action and this is an iterative and cyclical
    process reflection-action and

Transformative pedagogies
  • Demystify practices and forms of knowledge
  • Difference as key resource for processes of
    collaborative meaning-making (but in a framework
    that recognises structural inequalities power
  • questioning and critical approaches are
    encouraged - without the fear of making
  • requires sophisticated levels of understanding on
    the part of the teacher of complex pedagogical
    relations and the operation of power in the

potential of social technologies
  • The blog enhances the opportunity for students to
    be more aware of different viewpoints, which can
    potentially expand the students capacity for
    reading and understanding at a deeper level. In
    conventional lecture settings, it is rather
    difficult to know what other students grasp from
    the same reading material unless tutorials are
    structured into the programme and these typically
    occur after course inputs. The circulation of
    blog postings before the lectures is not only
    beneficial for students but also for the
    lecturer, as students but also for the lecturer,
    as she or he can be more aware of what level of
    understanding the students have from the reading
    and what is required to engage with students
    understanding and to stretch it during the
    lecture and subsequent discussion. 
  • from Hemmi, Bayne, and Land (2009) Journal of
    Computer Assisted Learning (2009), 25, 1930

potential to form collaborative processes of
  • Wiki textuality has the potential to be radically
    different from more orthodox, non-digital modes
    of writing within formal higher education, in
    that the wiki space is one which is fundamentally
    unstable and collectively produced, with a
    tendency to problematize conventional notions of
    authorship and ownership.
  • from Hemmi, Bayne, and Land (2009) Journal of
    Computer Assisted Learning (2009), 25, 1930

Circle of knowledge
  • There is no genuine instruction in whose process
    no research is performed by way of question,
    investigation, curiosity, creativity just as
    there is no research in the course of which
    researchers do not learn after all, by coming
    to know, they learn, and after having learned
    something, they communicate, they teach. The role
    of the universityis to immerse itself, utterly
    seriously, in the moment of this circle (Freire,
    2009 169-170).

Thank you!
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