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Post WWII Big Events

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Post WWII Big Events – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Post WWII Big Events


1
Post WWII Big Events
2
Partition of India and Dispute over Kashmir
  • India Partitioned in 1947
  • Two states Pakistan (Muslim) and India (Hindu)
    and the Sikhs?
  • Princes decide at the final moment apparently a
    bit too late.
  • Violence over Kashmir

3
Israeli-Palestinian Conflict


4
Problems with OPEC?
5
Latin American Revolutions
  • Proxy Wars
  • US Policy of containment
  • Guatemala US supported an overthrow of the
    leftist government
  • The Cuban example
  • The US cant stop us Bay of Pigs
  • Brazil, Chile and Argentina under dictatorships
    (end between 1980-1990)
  • Brazilian Solution combination of
    dictatorship, violence and industrialization
  • General Augusto Pinochet of Chile supported by
    the US, stopped communism in his country at the
    cost of thousands of lives
  • Nicaragua 1979
  • Sandinistas, who wished to model their gov. after
    Cuba and the USSR, ousted the dictatorship of
    Anastasio Somoza
  • Carters conciliation Reagan has other ideas
  • Economic sanctions
  • Arming of the counterrevolutionaries? Contras
  • Legal???

6
Iranian Revolution and the Sour Relationship with
the US
  • 1953 Coup- led by the CIA
  • Shah of Iran propped up by the US CIA convinced
    Shah to invest in US weaponry
  • Division of wealth led to popular uprising
    against the Shah
  • Ayatollah Khomeini Shiite cleric who became the
    leader of Iran
  • Theocracy
  • US seen as Great Satan
  • US Embassy seized
  • 1980 Iran-Iraq War (Saddam Hussein, a Sunni,
    wanted to stop the spread of Shiism)
  • US sold Iran weapons in exchange for the release
    of US hostages
  • Also, sold weapons in order to finance war
    against Sandinistas in Nicaragua
  • Iran-Contra Scandal

7
Peoples Republic of China
  • Chinese Civil War ROC defeated by PRC
  • PRC established in 1949 and allied with USSR
  • Great Leap Forward 1958
  • 1966 Cultural Revolution
  • 1971 PRC recognized by the world as the true
    government of China (nationalists on Taiwan no
    longer recognized) explains current problems
    between China and Taiwan
  • After the death of Mao, China rejoined the world
    economy
  • Mass industrialization
  • Increased energy output (largest emitter of
    greenhouse gases)
  • Recently 2nd largest GDP
  • Relaxing some controls of the economy has led to
    several violent protests
  • Tiananmen Square 1989

8
Japanese Isolation
  • Being left out of the Cold War gave Japan the
    opportunity to rebuild and strengthen their
    national economy
  • Led to massive restructuring of their economy
  • Energy
  • Steel
  • Shipbuilding
  • Japanese model of close cooperation between
    government and industry was imitated by the
    Asian Tigers Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore and
    South Korea.

9
Cold War
10
Why? Different Intentions and Ideologies.
  • What is a Superpower?
  • US Intentions? Stronger World Economy Stronger
    US Economy, to nations in return for economic
    and military friendship (in other words, US has a
    say in other nations affairs e.g. Partition of
    Palestine, Suez Canal Crisis)
  • USSR Intentions? Consolidate power and create
    pliant buffer states (eastern Europe), denied
    from US because a strong world economy did not
    concern Stalins planned economy. With the
    largest army in the world, Stalin used might gain
    pliant buffer states (including the eastern third
    of Germany).
  • What is Stalins problem? democracies had tried
    to stop the Bolsheviks from winning the Russian
    Civil War Suspected that the US and Britain
    delayed opening a second front (promised in 1942,
    delivered D-day 44) so as to let the USSR bear
    the brunt of fighting the Germans capitalism is
    communisms great foe and Stalin was paranoid.

11
Yalta and Potsdam Conferences following WWII
  • Europe to be broken up into two spheres of
    influence
  • Germany broken up
  • What about Eastern Europe? US wanted free
    elections, but the USSR (which had its military
    there) said no and set up puppet governments uh
    oh, this is the beginning of a long struggle.

12
The Pacts
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) ? 1st
    World
  • Warsaw Pact ? 2nd World
  • Communist nonaligned countries
  • Noncommunist nonaligned countries

Third World
13
Post WWII Europe The Sides
14
Berlin East and West
  • USSR wanted the whole thing It was, of course,
    located in Soviet controlled East Germany.
  • Berlin Blockade
  • Berlin Airlift

Soviets relent and Berlin is divided in two. In
1961, the Soviets build the Berlin Wall a great
symbol of the Cold War.
15
Key Cold War Players. Also, notice Vietnam, N.
and S. Korea and East and West Germany
16
Nuclear Proliferation
  • First the US, then the USSR and now?

Approximately 30 countries have attempted to
obtain Nuclear weapons, 9-10 have been
successful. South Africa had nuclear weapons but
has completely dismantled its program.
17
Mutual Assured Destruction
  • M.A.D. ? Whoever shoots first, dies second.

18
World Involvement? Proxy Wars?
  • Choose your team! Dont worry, if you are
    undecided the US or the USSR will be glad to
    influence your decision.
  • Korea
  • Vietnam
  • Afghanistan
  • Middle East
  • Cuba

Above US soldiers in Vietnam. Left Afghan
freedom fighters attacking Soviet trucks.
19
End of the Cold War
  • After Stalin died, his successors recognized that
    they could not continue in isolation.
  • Lack of incentives hurt Soviet innovation
  • In 1970s, China initiated diplomacy with the US
  • 1970s, lack of innovation, agriculture became
    stagnant and unable to feed the Soviet population

20
The End Continued
  • Costly wars to stop the independence movements on
    the Soviet frontiers (esp. in Afghanistan) caused
    great problems
  • Oil for the Soviets, but when oil prices
    fell in the 80s, the Soviet economy also fell
  • Reagan and Star Wars

21
The End continued
  • Mikhail Gorbachev, 1985, allowed more freedom of
    information
  • People realized that they were worse off than
    much of the rest of the world
  • Eastern European buffer states began to fight
    back against Moscow

22
The End Continued
  • 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster
  • 1989 East Germans fled to West Germany and the
    Berlin Wall came tumbling down
  • 1991 The Soviet Union fell

23
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24
In the wake of the Cold War
  • US befriends Eastern Europe
  • Russia continues to struggle with oil rich
    regions that want independence (Chechnya)
  • As the world economy tumbles, Russian hardliners
    who remember the Soviet Union fondly are saying
    I told you so!
  • Ukraine??
  • A new Chilly War

George W. Bush cruising with Vladimir Putin in
Putins 1956 Volga
25
The End!
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