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Post WWII Big Events


Post WWII Big Events – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Post WWII Big Events

Post WWII Big Events
Partition of India and Dispute over Kashmir
  • India Partitioned in 1947
  • Two states Pakistan (Muslim) and India (Hindu)
    and the Sikhs?
  • Princes decide at the final moment apparently a
    bit too late.
  • Violence over Kashmir

Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

Problems with OPEC?
Latin American Revolutions
  • Proxy Wars
  • US Policy of containment
  • Guatemala US supported an overthrow of the
    leftist government
  • The Cuban example
  • The US cant stop us Bay of Pigs
  • Brazil, Chile and Argentina under dictatorships
    (end between 1980-1990)
  • Brazilian Solution combination of
    dictatorship, violence and industrialization
  • General Augusto Pinochet of Chile supported by
    the US, stopped communism in his country at the
    cost of thousands of lives
  • Nicaragua 1979
  • Sandinistas, who wished to model their gov. after
    Cuba and the USSR, ousted the dictatorship of
    Anastasio Somoza
  • Carters conciliation Reagan has other ideas
  • Economic sanctions
  • Arming of the counterrevolutionaries? Contras
  • Legal???

Iranian Revolution and the Sour Relationship with
the US
  • 1953 Coup- led by the CIA
  • Shah of Iran propped up by the US CIA convinced
    Shah to invest in US weaponry
  • Division of wealth led to popular uprising
    against the Shah
  • Ayatollah Khomeini Shiite cleric who became the
    leader of Iran
  • Theocracy
  • US seen as Great Satan
  • US Embassy seized
  • 1980 Iran-Iraq War (Saddam Hussein, a Sunni,
    wanted to stop the spread of Shiism)
  • US sold Iran weapons in exchange for the release
    of US hostages
  • Also, sold weapons in order to finance war
    against Sandinistas in Nicaragua
  • Iran-Contra Scandal

Peoples Republic of China
  • Chinese Civil War ROC defeated by PRC
  • PRC established in 1949 and allied with USSR
  • Great Leap Forward 1958
  • 1966 Cultural Revolution
  • 1971 PRC recognized by the world as the true
    government of China (nationalists on Taiwan no
    longer recognized) explains current problems
    between China and Taiwan
  • After the death of Mao, China rejoined the world
  • Mass industrialization
  • Increased energy output (largest emitter of
    greenhouse gases)
  • Recently 2nd largest GDP
  • Relaxing some controls of the economy has led to
    several violent protests
  • Tiananmen Square 1989

Japanese Isolation
  • Being left out of the Cold War gave Japan the
    opportunity to rebuild and strengthen their
    national economy
  • Led to massive restructuring of their economy
  • Energy
  • Steel
  • Shipbuilding
  • Japanese model of close cooperation between
    government and industry was imitated by the
    Asian Tigers Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore and
    South Korea.

Cold War
Why? Different Intentions and Ideologies.
  • What is a Superpower?
  • US Intentions? Stronger World Economy Stronger
    US Economy, to nations in return for economic
    and military friendship (in other words, US has a
    say in other nations affairs e.g. Partition of
    Palestine, Suez Canal Crisis)
  • USSR Intentions? Consolidate power and create
    pliant buffer states (eastern Europe), denied
    from US because a strong world economy did not
    concern Stalins planned economy. With the
    largest army in the world, Stalin used might gain
    pliant buffer states (including the eastern third
    of Germany).
  • What is Stalins problem? democracies had tried
    to stop the Bolsheviks from winning the Russian
    Civil War Suspected that the US and Britain
    delayed opening a second front (promised in 1942,
    delivered D-day 44) so as to let the USSR bear
    the brunt of fighting the Germans capitalism is
    communisms great foe and Stalin was paranoid.

Yalta and Potsdam Conferences following WWII
  • Europe to be broken up into two spheres of
  • Germany broken up
  • What about Eastern Europe? US wanted free
    elections, but the USSR (which had its military
    there) said no and set up puppet governments uh
    oh, this is the beginning of a long struggle.

The Pacts
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) ? 1st
  • Warsaw Pact ? 2nd World
  • Communist nonaligned countries
  • Noncommunist nonaligned countries

Third World
Post WWII Europe The Sides
Berlin East and West
  • USSR wanted the whole thing It was, of course,
    located in Soviet controlled East Germany.
  • Berlin Blockade
  • Berlin Airlift

Soviets relent and Berlin is divided in two. In
1961, the Soviets build the Berlin Wall a great
symbol of the Cold War.
Key Cold War Players. Also, notice Vietnam, N.
and S. Korea and East and West Germany
Nuclear Proliferation
  • First the US, then the USSR and now?

Approximately 30 countries have attempted to
obtain Nuclear weapons, 9-10 have been
successful. South Africa had nuclear weapons but
has completely dismantled its program.
Mutual Assured Destruction
  • M.A.D. ? Whoever shoots first, dies second.

World Involvement? Proxy Wars?
  • Choose your team! Dont worry, if you are
    undecided the US or the USSR will be glad to
    influence your decision.
  • Korea
  • Vietnam
  • Afghanistan
  • Middle East
  • Cuba

Above US soldiers in Vietnam. Left Afghan
freedom fighters attacking Soviet trucks.
End of the Cold War
  • After Stalin died, his successors recognized that
    they could not continue in isolation.
  • Lack of incentives hurt Soviet innovation
  • In 1970s, China initiated diplomacy with the US
  • 1970s, lack of innovation, agriculture became
    stagnant and unable to feed the Soviet population

The End Continued
  • Costly wars to stop the independence movements on
    the Soviet frontiers (esp. in Afghanistan) caused
    great problems
  • Oil for the Soviets, but when oil prices
    fell in the 80s, the Soviet economy also fell
  • Reagan and Star Wars

The End continued
  • Mikhail Gorbachev, 1985, allowed more freedom of
  • People realized that they were worse off than
    much of the rest of the world
  • Eastern European buffer states began to fight
    back against Moscow

The End Continued
  • 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster
  • 1989 East Germans fled to West Germany and the
    Berlin Wall came tumbling down
  • 1991 The Soviet Union fell

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In the wake of the Cold War
  • US befriends Eastern Europe
  • Russia continues to struggle with oil rich
    regions that want independence (Chechnya)
  • As the world economy tumbles, Russian hardliners
    who remember the Soviet Union fondly are saying
    I told you so!
  • Ukraine??
  • A new Chilly War

George W. Bush cruising with Vladimir Putin in
Putins 1956 Volga
The End!