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Cell Biology

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Cell Biology Ms Mahoney MCAS Biology – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cell Biology


1
Cell Biology
  • Ms Mahoney
  • MCAS Biology

2
Cell Biology
  • Central Concepts Cells have specific structures
    and functions that make them distinctive.
    Processes in a cell can be classified broadly as
    growth, maintenance, and reproduction.
  • 2.2 Compare and contrast, at the cellular level,
    the general structures and degrees of complexity
    of prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

3
  • Prokaryotes
  • Eukaryotes
  • Simple
  • Single Celled
  • DNA exposed
  • No Organelles
  • Asexual Reproduction
  • Binary fission
  • Complex
  • Single or Multi celled
  • DNA protected
  • Organelles (smaller parts)
  • Sexual Reproduction
  • Meiosis

4
Cell Biology
  • Central Concepts Cells have specific structures
    and functions that make them distinctive.
    Processes in a cell can be classified broadly as
    growth, maintenance, and reproduction.
  • 2.1a Relate cell parts/organelles (plasma
    membrane, nuclear envelope, nucleus, nucleolus,
    cytoplasm, mitochondrion, endoplasmic reticulum,
    Golgi apparatus, lysosome, ribosome, vacuole,
    cell wall, chloroplast, cytoskeleton, centriole,
    cilium, flagellum, pseudopod) to their functions.
  •  

5
ALL Cells Have these Parts
  • Structure
  • Function
  • Cell Membrane
  • DNA
  • Cytoplasm
  • Ribosomes
  • Flagella/Cillia
  • Keep material in or out of the cell
  • Instructions for the cell
  • Liquid of the cell
  • Make proteins
  • Movement

6
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7
Organelles (smaller parts of the cell)in
Eukaryotes
  • Structure
  • Function
  • Nucleus
  • Nucleolus
  • Ribosomes
  • Rough ER
  • Has ribosomes
  • Smooth ER
  • Golgi Apparatus
  • Lysosome
  • Mitochondria
  • Hold DNA
  • Make ribosomes
  • Make proteins
  • Makes proteins
  • Makes lipids/breakdown toxins
  • Package and ship proteins
  • Break apart materials
  • Make energy (ATP)

8
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9
ONLY Plants Have
  • Structure
  • Function
  • Cell Wall
  • Central Vacuole
  • Chloroplast
  • Protection and shape
  • Store water and other materials
  • Make sugar
  • Photosynthesis

10
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11
Cell Biology
  • Central Concepts Cells have specific structures
    and functions that make them distinctive.
    Processes in a cell can be classified broadly as
    growth, maintenance, and reproduction.
  • 2.3 Use cellular evidence (e.g., cell structure,
    cell number, cell reproduction) and modes of
    nutrition to describe the six kingdoms
    (Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protista, Fungi,
    Plantae, Animalia).

12
6 Kingdoms
  • Archaebacteria
  • Eubacteria
  • Protista
  • Fungi
  • Plantae
  • Animalia
  • Eating
  • Heterotroph
  • Take in food
  • Autotroph
  • Make their food
  • Reproduction
  • Asexual
  • One cell splits
  • Sexual
  • Two cells merge

13
Cell Type Cell structure Cell Number Cell Reproduction Nutrition
Bacteria bacteria Simple No Organelles Single Asexual Heterotroph
Eubacteria bacteria Simple No Organelles Single Asexual Heterotroph
Protist ameoba Complex Has Organelles Single Asexual Autotroph or heterotroph
Fungi mushroom Complex Has Organelles Single or multi Sexual Heterotroph
Plant Complex Has Organelles Single or multi Sexual Autotroph
Animal Complex Has Organelles Single or multi Sexual Heterotroph
14
Cell Biology
  • Central Concepts Cells have specific structures
    and functions that make them distinctive.
    Processes in a cell can be classified broadly as
    growth, maintenance, and reproduction.
  • 2.1b Explain the role of cell membranes as a
    highly selective barrier (diffusion, osmosis,
    facilitated diffusion, active transport).

15
Cell Membrane
  • Selective barrier
  • Controls what enters and leaves the cell
  • Made of lipids and proteins
  • Lipids keep water in or out
  • Proteins allows material to pass through
  • Examples
  • Channels

16
Movement Across the Membrane
  • Diffusion
  • Definition movement of material from an area of
    high concentration to low concentration
  • High concentration a lot of material
  • Low concentration small amount of material

17
Types of Diffusion
  • Active diffusion need energy (ATP)
  • Passive Diffusion no energy
  • Osmosis diffusion of water
  • Facilitated diffusion protein in membrane helps
    move material into the cell

18
Cell Biology
  • Central Concepts Cells have specific structures
    and functions that make them distinctive.
    Processes in a cell can be classified broadly as
    growth, maintenance, and reproduction.
  • 2.4 Identify the reactants, products, and basic
    purposes of photosynthesis and cellular
    respiration. Explain the interrelated nature of
    photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the
    cells of photosynthetic organisms.
  • 2.5 Explain the important role that ATP serves in
    metabolism.

19
ATP (energy)
  • Energy for the cell
  • Needed for chemical reactions
  • Made during cellular respiration

20
Cellular Respiration
  • What is the point of Cellular Respiration?
  • TO MAKE ENERGY
  • What is happening?
  • Sugar (glucose) and oxygen mix together to make
    ATP (energy) and carbon dioxide and water
  • Formula
  • C6H12O6 O2 ? CO2 H2O energy
  • Where does it happen?
  • In the mitochondria of all eukaryotes

21
Photosynthesis
  • What is the point of Photosynthesis?
  • TO MAKE SUGAR
  • What is happening?
  • Carbon dioxide and water mix together to make
    sugar and oxygen
  • Formula
  • CO2 H2O ?C3H6O3 O2
  • (light)
  • Where does it happen?
  • In the chloroplasts of plants and some protists

22
Cycle of C02 and O2Carbon dioxide CO2
Oxygen O2
Plants
Animals
23
Cell Biology
  • Central Concepts Cells have specific structures
    and functions that make them distinctive.
    Processes in a cell can be classified broadly as
    growth, maintenance, and reproduction.
  • 2.6 Describe the cell cycle and the process of
    mitosis. Explain the role of mitosis in the
    formation of new cells, and its importance in
    maintaining chromosome number during asexual
    reproduction.

24
Cell Cycle (life of a cell)
25
Mitosis
  • Make new cells for
  • Asexual reproduction
  • Growth
  • Repair
  • Cells divide once
  • Start with one cell, ends with 2 cells
  • Amount of DNA stays the same
  • Chromosome number stays the same

26
  • Nucleus breaks apart
  • Chromosomes line up in middle of cell
  • Chromosomes separate
  • New nucleus forms and cells split

27
Cell Biology
  • Central Concepts Cells have specific structures
    and functions that make them distinctive.
    Processes in a cell can be classified broadly as
    growth, maintenance, and reproduction.
  • 2.7 Describe how the process of meiosis results
    in the formation of haploid cells. Explain the
    importance of this process in sexual
    reproduction, and how gametes form diploid
    zygotes in the process of fertilization.

28
Meiosis
  • Division of sex cells
  • Gametes
  • Sperm and Eggs
  • Cell divides twice
  • Start with one cell (diploid) and end with 4
    cells (haploid)
  • Diploid two copies of DNA
  • Haploid one copy of DNA
  • Sperm and egg come together to make a zygote
  • Fertilization makes a new diploid cell
  • One DNA copy from mom, one DNA copy from dad
  • Each pair is called homologous chromosomes

29
  • DNA doubles
  • Replication
  • Meiosis I
  • homologous chromosomes separate into cells (each
    copy)
  • Meiosis II
  • Chromosomes separate into new cells
  • End with four haploid cells

30
Cell Biology
  • Central Concepts Cells have specific structures
    and functions that make them distinctive.
    Processes in a cell can be classified broadly as
    growth, maintenance, and reproduction.
  • 2.8 Compare and contrast a virus and a cell in
    terms of genetic material and reproduction.

31
Virus
  • Not alive
  • Needs a host (other living thing) to reproduce
  • Why?
  • No organelles to make more of its self
  • Virus DNA that goes into host DNA and controls
    the host cell
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