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FEM4105 PSYCHOLOGY OF PERSONALITY AND HUMAN DYNAMICS

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GENDER IDENTITY gender identity can be defined as the sameness, unity, and persistence of one s individuality as male, female, or ambivalent (Money & Ehrhardt ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: FEM4105 PSYCHOLOGY OF PERSONALITY AND HUMAN DYNAMICS


1
FEM4105 PSYCHOLOGY OF PERSONALITY AND HUMAN
DYNAMICS
  • GENDER IDENTITY

2
Gender Identity
  • gender identity can be defined as the sameness,
    unity, and persistence of ones individuality as
    male, female, or ambivalent (Money Ehrhardt
    (1972))
  • relative degree to which an individual patterns
    himself or herself after members of the same sex.
    It is associated with the degree in which an
    individual takes on the behaviors, personality
    patterns, and attitudes that are commonly
    associated with male or female sex roles (Backer
    (2003))

3
  • an individuals self-conception as being male or
    female, as distinguished from actual biological
    sex.
  • link to a persons sense of self and the sense
    of being male or female (Ontario's Human Rights
    Code)
  • our own perception and our own determination
    about our gender either male or female. It is can
    be difference from our real biological sex.

4
Theory of Gender Identity
  • Psychoanalytic theory
  • -through the identification from the parent same
    sex.
  • - as a result of Electra or Oedipus conflicts
    during childhood
  • Social-Cognitive theory
  • - develop through learning process
  • - learning from parent or others
  • - behaviors reinforce with reinforcement

5
  • Cognitive Theory
  • a) cognitive-development theory
  • - contends that because children consistently
    hear themselves called boy or girl, they
    begin to conceive of themselves as being of one
    sex or the other. Ultimately, from such
    interactions, children develop a conception of
    attitudes toward and behavioral expectations
    concerning that gender.
  • b) gender-schema theory
  • - concerns the development of an internal
    schema, or mental framework, which organizes and
    directs the behavior of an individual as a male
    or female. For example, the gender schema of
    being female might include the proposition I am
    a girl, so I play with dolls, not trucks.

6
  • iv) Gender-Schema theory
  • - Gender schema theory refers to the theory that
    children learn about what it means to be male and
    female from the culture in which they live.
    According to this theory, children adjust their
    behavior to fit in with the gender norms and
    expectations of their culture.
  • - asserts that ones childhood development is
    influenced heavily by concepts about what
    maleness or femaleness means in a particular
    society.
  • - schema is a cognitive structures, a network
    of associations that organizes and guides an
    individuals perceptions.

7
  • Biological theory
  • i) chromosomes
  • - XX Women
  • - XY Men
  • ii) hormones
  • - men testosterone
  • - women estrogen and progesterone
  • Social Role Theory
  • Eaglys Social Role Theory of sex differences in
    social behavior
  • Social Role Theory- suggests that almost all
    behavioral differences we know about between
    males and females is the result of cultural
    stereotypes about gender (how males and females
    are supposed to act) and the resulting social
    roles that are taught to young people.

8
Gender differentiation
  • Men and women was born with many different
    characteristics. There can be view from various
    aspects of life
  • 1) Physical aspects
  • men are generally taller than women, have more
    muscles body, though , have facial hair such as
    moustache and beard while women are generally
    shorter than male and dont have any facial hair.

9
  • Emotional aspects
  • women are tend to be more emotional than men in
    something happen and easily sad and cry.
  • sensitivity
  • women is more sensitive to the threat than men.
    Due to different hormone production in both
    gender.
  • Jealousy
  • Women are more prone to react negatively when
    they or their children are deprived of emotional
    support this will trigger jealousy. Men, on the
    other hand, will become angry if they suspect
    their wives of sexual infidelity.

10
  • Thinking
  • Women tend to be intuitive global thinkers.
     Women are prone to become overwhelmed with
    complexities that "exist", or may exist, and may
    have difficulty separating their personal
    experience from problems than men.
  • Memory
  • Women have an enhanced ability to recall
    memories that have strong emotional components
    while men tend to recall events using strategies
    that rely on reconstructing the experience in
    terms of elements, tasks or activities that took
    place. 

11
  • Processing information
  • -men is left-brain-side oriented while women is
    right-brain-side.
  • left-brain sided oriented is person can be
    described as literal, logical, linear and
    linguistic.
  • -The right brain "makes sense" of the qualities
    of voice such as tone, pitch, volume. It also
    "makes sense" of facial expressions, gestures,
    body language and feeling. In a sense, right
    brain is an emotional radar.

12
Gender Role
  • the behaviors and attitudes expected of male and
    female members of a society by that society.
  • Different culture has different expectations to
    the men and women.
  • - Islamic perspectives, - Western perspectives
  • - Indian perspectives - African perspectives
  • Tasks that must be fulfill according to their
    gender.
  • women childbearing, do chores, take care of
    children, husbands, and family and manages
    households.
  • Men go work, find welfare for family, and able
    to protects family

13
  • Gender role create gender stereotypes in society.
  • If the men or women doesnt fulfill the expected
    role of their gender this will be lead to
    discriminations.
  • eg women must be a perfect women
  • Feminity
  • Beauty
  • Respectful
  • men must be a perfect men
  • Strong
  • Masculine
  • independent

14
Gender stereotype
  • a shared set of beliefs about purported qualities
    of    females and males.
  • typical traits perceived as inherent in men and
    womenthey are culturally influenced, and bear
    little resemblance to real people.
  • Develop since childhood
  • Traditionally 1) female stereotypic role
  • 2) Male stereotypic role

15
Androgyny and human relationship
  • There are two definitions for androgyny physical 
    (intersexual) - born with both male and female
    genitals and psychological - combining both
    masculinity and femininity as traits of a unified
    gender that defies social roles and psychological
    attributes.
  • the blending of feminine and masculine attributes
    in the same individual.
  • The androgyny, or androgynous person, does not
    neatly fit into a female or male gender role she
    or he can comfortably express the qualities of
    both genders.
  • Parents and other socializing agents can teach
    their children to be androgynous, just as they
    can teach them to be gender-biased.

16
  • Dr. Sandra Bem
  • - 'psychological androgyny'
  • - describe those men and women who did not fit
    into traditionally defined gender roles.
  • nowadays situations
  • 1) fashion-industry
  • 2) beauty-industry
  • 3) work-industry
  • In the relationship with human, androgynous
    people are more tendency to pansexuality or
    asexuality

17
  • Gender, Gender Identity, Ethnicity, and
    stereotyping of childrens chores The Israeli
    Case
  • Liat kulik
  • Bar Ilan University
  • Journal of cross-cultural psychology 2006, 37
    408

18
Journal summary
  • Instruments that used is stereotyping of
    childrens chore, Bem Sex Role Inventory and
    self-evaluation of masculinity and feminity.
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the
    stereotyping of childrens chores in Israeli
    society and the way those stereotypes are
    affected by gender identity, gender and
    ethnicity.
  • There are three hypotheses that are formulated

19
  • There are three hypotheses that are formulated
  • Individuals with sex-typed gender identities will
    maintain more stereotyped perceptions of
    childrens chores than will those with
    androgynuos and undifferentiated gender
    identities.
  • Women will have less stereotyped perceptions than
    men
  • Asian African origin will maintain more
    stereotyped perceptions than European American

20
  • RESULTS
  • Result in this journal shows that
    undifferentiated participants shows that the most
    stereotyped that feminine attitude towards
    domestic chores.
  • Undifferentiated and cross-typed participants
    expressed more stereotypes views of outside
    chores.
  • Women expressed less stereotyped view than men in
    childrens chores.
  • Participants country of birth did not affect
    their perceptions of childrens scores while the
    country of birth of the participants mothers.

21
Conclusion
  • Gender identity is our own perception toward
    femininity or masculinity which is develop during
    childhood and are determine to various factors
    which are discussed in theory.
  • There are 6 theories are be discussed on gender
    identity.
  • Each gender have difference characteristics which
    is need to be understand in order to live
    harmoniously in marriage live.

22
  • Gender role that are perceived by different
    culture actually is the lead to the gender
    stereotypes.
  • This stereotypes will lead to gender
    discriminations.
  • Nowadays, there are evolutionary gender identity
    which cannot only include traditionally oriented
    gender but its include many others
    non-conformity genders group such as LGBT gender
    and homosexuality groups.
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