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The Organizational Structures of Security Agencies In Arab States ??????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????

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Title: The Organizational Structures of Security Agencies In Arab States ??????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????


1
The Organizational Structures of Security
Agencies In Arab States??????? ????????? ??????
???????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????
  • Dr. Mamdooh Abdelhameed (Ph.D., J.D)
  • Professor of Police Science Law
  • ??????? / ????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????
  • ????? ?????? ??????? ????????

2
General Remarks And Notices????? ????
  • First The upper political leadership of the
    security organs.
  • ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???????

Second Upper executive leadership of security
organs in Arab States. ??????? ????????? ??????
??????? ???????
Third Facts and notices related to type of
security administrative ??? ?????? ???????
?????? system
3
Fourth The philosophy of security work. ?????
????? ??????
Fifth Summarizing common aspects of
organizational structures of Arab security
organs. ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????????
??????? ??????? ???????

4
First The upper political leadership of the
security organs.??????? ???????? ?????? ???????
??????? ???????
5
  • 1 - All Arab states have a central ministry that
    is responsible for internal security in its
    comprehensive sense. This ministry is called the
    Ministry of the Interior and the person in charge
    of it is called the Minister of the Interior.
  • ???? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ??
    ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ????????
    ??????? ????? ???? ???? ????????.

6
  • 2 - In all Arab states, the Minister of the
    Interior is assisted by Deputy Ministers,
    Assistant Ministers, Under-Secretaries of the
    Ministry.
  • ?? ???? ????? ??????? ? ????? ???? ???????? ?
    ???? ???? ?? ???? ????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ???? ???
    ?? ?????.

7
  • 3 - The modern criminal justice system is
    composed of a police force (with its
    administrative and criminal parts), general
    prosecution, the judiciary, penal and reformatory
    institutions and the juvenile criminal justice
    system.
  • ????? ???? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? (
    ????? ??????) ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????????
    ???????? ??????????? ????? ???????.

8
  • 4 - The duties of the modern criminal justice
    system are divided among three ministries The
    Ministry of Interior, the Ministry of Justice and
    the Ministry of Social Affairs.
  • ????? ???? ???? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????
    ?????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????????
    ???? ?????? ??????? .

9
5 - All Arab states follow at varying degrees,
the principle of separation of powers. Here we
notice the following ???? ????? ??????? ??????
??????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ? ?????? ???
  • In Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Bahrain, the Emirates,
    Yemen and Sudan,
  • the Ministry of Interior shoulders the
    responsibility for combating crime, detection,
    arresting those who commit crimes,
    investigations, presenting cases before criminal
    courts, representing the prosecution and then
    supervising the implementation of penalties,
    penal and reformatory institutions and
    supervising juvenile justice.
  • ?? ???????? ???? ???????? ????????? ??????
    ???????? ? ????? ????? ???????? ???? ?????????
    ???????? ???????? ??? ????? ???????? ???????
    ????????.

10
  • In Algeria, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Egypt, it
    is noticed how procedures of crime fighting, such
    as crime control, detection and the gathering of
    evidence (undertaken by the organs of the
    Ministry of Interior) and judicial or
    semi-judicial procedures and supervision of penal
    institutions, which are left to the charge of the
    Ministry of Justice or the Ministry of Social
    Affairs.
  • ?? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ? ???? ???
    ??? ??? ????????? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ????
    ??????? ???? ???????? ????????? ????? ???? ??
    ????? ????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????
    ??????????.

11
Second Upper executive leadership of security
organs in Arab states. ??????? ????????? ??????
??????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????
12
  • 1 - The general executive commander responsible
    for security organs before the Minister of
    Interior is known in each Arab states as
  • 1- Saudi Arabia Deputy of Minister of
    Interior.
  • 2 - Egypt A number of assistants to
    minister.
  • 3 - United Arab Emirates
    Under-secretary of Ministry.
  • Director of Public Security . Qatar
    4 -

?????? ???????? ????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????
??? ???? ???????? ???? ???? ???? ????????
?? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ????
??????? ?? ???????? ???? ????? ????? ?? ???
13
  • 2 - Arab security organs take up the following
    administrative division
  • Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , Egypt Sectors ,
    General Department ,Department , General
    Directorate.
  • the rest of the countries take one or more
    from these administrative security division.
  • ????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ?? ?????
    ??????? ?? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?????????
    ????????? ??????.

14
Third RemarkFacts and notices related to type
of security administrative system ??? ??????
??????? ?????? ?? ????? ???????
15
  • 1 - All Arab states follow central
    security-agency system where in the minister of
    the interior and the supreme executive commander
    directly supervises security operations in all
    regions of the state and on all administrative,
    financial and technical matters.
  • ???? ????? ??????? ???? ????? ??????? ???????
    ???????? ???? ???? ???? ???????? ??????? ????????
    ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? .
  • The only exception is the United Arab Emirates
    which follow a decentralized system by which each
    emirate undertakes responsibility of its security
    organs in full where as the federal security
    command is considered a general coordinating and
    supervising body.
  • ????????? ?????? ???????? ???? ???? ???? ???????
    ?????? ??????? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ??? .

16
  • 2 - Members of security agencies in all Arab
    states have considerable military training, wear
    a uniform and carry fire arms which the are
    allowed to use in accordance with discretionary
    powers they are granted.
  • ???? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????
    ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ????
    ????????? ??? ??? ?????? .
  • They are subject to military discipline and
    follow a ranking system that is similar to
    military ranks in practice in Arab countries.
  • ??????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??? ??????
    ????? ????????

17
fourth The philosophy of security work.?????
????? ?????? ??????
18
  • 1- The organizational structures and the naming
    of security organs in Arab states are affected by
    lack of compatibility between security philosophy
    and the general directives for security work and
    their organizational structures.
  • ????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????
    ???? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??????????
    ?????? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ??????????
    ????????.
  • Some Arab states adopt a concept of
    comprehensive security. Others limit their focus
    to criminal or political security. There is the
    comprehensive security man who possesses the
    powers of arresting, control and search
    anywhere and in the different fields of law
    enforcement.
  • ??? ????? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????
    ???? ????? ????? ???????? ?? ????? ???????
    ????????? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ????
    ???? ???? ????.
  • There are also security people who specialize in
    specific fields of work or have specific domains
    of competence that they do not operate outside of.

19
  • 2 - One of the most controversial matters in the
    issue of structures of Arab security organs is
    the presence of security sectors under different
    names, such as the public security sector, the
    police sector, the public investigation sector,
    the state security investigation unit or the
    criminal investigation unit.
  • ?? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ????? ????? ????
    ?????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????
    ????? ???? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????? ??
    ????????.
  • In some countries public security means the
    special organ for the states political security,
    the crime combat forces and the traffic
    department.
  • ?? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ????
    ?????? ??????? ????? ?? ??? ???? ???? ?? ?????
    ?????? ??????? ???????.
  • On the other hand, we find that public
    investigation means the political security organ,
    or it means the crime control agency.
  • ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ???? ??? ???? ?????
    ??????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ???????.

20
Fifth Summarizing common aspects of
organizational structures of Arab security
organs.??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????????
???????
21
  • 1 - The political history of each Arab state has
    had its impact on the official organization of
    the security body and that was further reflected
    on the organizational structure of security
    organs in general.
  • ??????? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ? ??? ?? ???????
    ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ??? ??????
    ???????? ?????? ????? ???? ????.

22
  • 2 - Although each state started doing away with
    the systems and names left behind by the colonial
    powers, they kept some of the local and
    environmental circumstances. However, the echo of
    the European system is still heard from far away,
    especially in terms of names and organizations at
    a second degree.
  • ?????? ?? ?? ?? ???? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ?????
    ?? ??? ???? ???? ????? ???? ????????? ? ??? ??
    ??? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??
    ???????? ??????? ????????

23
  • 3 - Arab states almost follow a unified system in
    selection of personnel for security organs in
    general, and the police in particular.
  • ???? ????? ??????? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ????????
    ??????? .

24
  • 4 - The system of selection of personnel for
    security sectors undoubtedly relates to the
    dominant social system in Arab countries in
    general and in each state in particular.
  • ??? ???????? ???? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????
    ?? ?????? ???????? ???????.

25
  • 5 - It is noticed that the formation of personnel
    manning Arab security organs is divided into two
    categories officers and other ranks. Each
    category has its own system of selection and the
    conditions of such selection and the social class
    that those chosen come from .
  • ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????? ??? ??????? ??
    ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ? ???? ????? ?????? ??
    ???????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????
    ?????????? ???? ?????? ?????.

26
  • A.) Officers are generally selected out of
    university graduates or high-school graduates as
    a minimum requirement. They then are qualified at
    security colleges and institutes for a period of
    no less than two years at least. There are
    systems of three-year and four-year training.
  • ??? ?????? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ???????? ??
    ??????? ???????? ? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ??????
    ?????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ????? .

27
B.) Other ranks that set about their professional
process from the rank of foot-soldier have
different conditions for their joining the
forces. They are not required to meet all
requirements asked of commissioned officers. It
suffices to have a primary schooling. Some
countries did not even ask for that but were
satisfied with knowledge of reading and
writing. ????? ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ?????
???? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ???
????? ?? ?? ???? ???? ???????? ????????.
28
  • 6 - The Interior Ministries in all Arab states
    are sovereign ministries. This helps upgrade
    security work, boost its value and significance.
    This is because the ministries of interior are
    responsible for security in all Arab states.
  • ?????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????
    ???? ?? ???? ?? ???? ???? ????? ??????
    ??????.?????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????
    ?? ?? ????? ???????.

29
  • 7 - Therefore, it is noticed that ministries and
    organs of security in Arab states have a
    sovereign status, which places security work at
    the top priority of state work and positions
    those in charge of security among the leaders who
    draw up general policies of states, whereby
    security aspects have presence and consideration
    in public life.
  • ???? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????? ??????
    ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ????????? ?? ???
    ???????? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ????
    ??????? ?? ?????? ??????.

30
  • 8 - all Arab countries take up a centralized
    system of security. Some countries tried to adopt
    a decentralized system.
  • ???? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ??????
    ???????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ????????
    ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ????????
    ??????????.

31
  • 9 - If we look at region security organs in Arab
    countries, with the exclusion of the political
    security agency, we find that most Arab countries
    adopt not only the system, but also the
    designations in unison. We find departments of
    criminal investigation, passports, immigration
    and nationality, planning and training, civil
    defense, Police College and institutes, special
    security forces, an administrative sector and
    officer affairs and the traffic sector that are
    adopted by almost all Arab countries.
  • .??? ????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????
    ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ????? ???? ?? ??
    ???????? ???? ? ??? ?????? ? ???????? ? ?????
    ????? ??????

32
  • 10 - Although all police organs in Arab countries
    carry out the task of crime prevention and
    detection as a traditional charge, along with
    gathering of evidence and preliminary
    investigation into crimes.
  • ?????? ?? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ???????
    ????? ???? ??? ??????? ????????? ???? ??????
    ???????? ?????? ?? ??????? .
  • the difference comes later when some Arab
    criminal systems give the police all duties
    including conducting all procedures of criminal
    investigation and presenting cases to court.
  • ???????? ???? ????? ???? ??? ??????? ???????
    ?????? ???? ??????? ???????? ???? ??????? ?????
    ??? ????????? ???????? ????????.
  • But some countries assign the police the task of
    gathering evidence and assign the powers of
    investigation to the Prosecutors office.
  • ??? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ??????
    ??????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????? ????????
    ???????? ??????? ??????.

33
  • 11 - It is noticed, from the general fabric of
    Arab security organs, that there is a similarity
    in terms of organizational structures.
  • ????? ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ????
    ????? ?? ?? ??????? ?????????.
  • but when you look into details of these
    structures and designations, you find that there
    is disparity. This difference may stem from the
    particularity of each state and the local
    circumstances surrounding it and this occurs to
    suit the situation.
  • ???? ????? ???? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??? ??
    ???? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??? ???? ???????
    ??????? ??? ??? ??? ????? ??????? ????????
    ?????????? ????????.

34
  • So,
  • what is required is to look into the disparity
    of
  • 1- philosophies and
  • 2- work directives and
  • 3- goals,
  • then to move to look into
  • 1- structures and
  • 2- designations.
  • ???? ???????? ?? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ????????
    ??????? ????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????? ??
    ??????? ?????????.
  • We are convinced that security structures,
    philosophies and directives stay the same and are
    harmonious
  • ??? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????????
    ????????? ??????? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ?????
    ???????? ??? ?? ????.
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