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Title: Objectives Business needs Application architecture Technology perspective Implications Review questions


1
Objectives Business needs Application
architecture Technology perspective Implications
Review questions
  • Enterprise Systems Foundations

2
What is Business Intelligence (BI)?
  • According to Wiki (2013)
  • BI is a set of theories, methodologies,
    processes, architectures, and technologies that
    transform raw data into meaningful and useful
    information for business purposes.
  • BI can handle large amounts of information to
    help identify and develop new opportunities.
  • Making use of new opportunities and implementing
    an effective strategy can provide a competitive
    market advantage and long-term stability.
  • However Internet / Smart Phone age has changed
    the BI landscape.

3
BI landscape in the age of Smart Phones
Crowd Systems Users
Crowd Data
Social Network Vehicle Sensors etc.
Extraction
Smart Phones Web Sites Etc.
Open Data
Time Tables Road Displays etc.
Management Analysts
Manufacturing Data, Financial Data etc.
DW
DB
ES
4
BI solutions are offered by all main vendors
  • The BI share is 5-10 of the ES market
  • BI solutions are offered by
  • Large ES vendors
  • SAP SAP Netweaver Business Warehouse (SAP
    NetWeaver BW) alias "SAP BI"
  • Oracle Oracle Business Intelligence Enterprise
    Edition Plus (OBI EE Plus)
  • MS SQL server series
  • Specialized vendors
  • SAS integrated system of software products
  • Microstrategy
  • Open source platforms e.g. Pentaho
  • Etc.

5
The BI architect
  • What is BI course for?
  • It intends to provide foundations for BI
    architects
  • BI projects require an architect
  • BI integrates a variety of software modules
  • The main BI project activity is to customize
    modules to user requirements
  • What is BI architect ?
  • He/she is able to model the needs of users and
    follows a framework
  • He/she is able to transform needs in a language
    understood by software developers
  • He/she is able to understand the software
    platforms to implement BI
  • He/she is NOT a pure software developer

6
Our approach to BI
BI systems modelling
7
Objectives Business perspective Application
perspective Technology perspective Implications Re
view questions
  • Enterprise Systems Foundations

8
The business perspective Enterprise
Crowd Systems Users
Crowd Data
Social Network Vehicle Sensors etc.
Extraction
Smart Phones Web Sites Etc.
Open Data
Time Tables Road Displays etc.
Management Analysts
Manufacturing Data, Financial Data etc.
DW
DB
ES
9
BI scope of Enterprise BI
  • BI was born for sales analysis what we sold,
    where, to whom
  • Enterprise has been and still is the primary
    target of BI
  • BI is a primary technology in Enterprise Systems
    (ES), specifically in Management Information
    Systems (MIS)
  • We here give an overview of ES

10
ES targets
Enterprise governance (Strategic decisions
budget governance)
Operation life cycle of the enterprise
Management of enterprise related
information (Execution life cycle)
11
ES for Management
  • Governance includes
  • Strategic planning, where managers decide
    products, markets, geography and structure of the
    organization
  • Management Control, where managers define budgets
    and analyze results and set appropriate
    corrective actions

12
ES for Management Management Cycle
Define objectives goals (plan)
Appraise results monthly (analysis)
  • Each governance level runs a three-phase control
    cycle (see right)
  • Information systems support management
  • DSS (Decision Support Systems) help managers to
    define budget and plans
  • Data Warehouse store aggregate data for
    management analysis
  • Reporting Systems provide information for
    analysis of results

Define corrective actions (action)
Operations (Execution)
13
ES for Management Reporting (example)
14
ES for Management Reporting (example)
  • Reporting systems aggregate time series of
    elementary information
  • E.g. the information Sales of semester 2 rolls
    up all the invoices of the cars sold
  • Reporting systems enable to compare goals against
    actual results (e.g. budget and actual sales)
    where
  • Actual results are extracted from operational
    records generated by execution activities
  • Goals are calculated in the planning phase of the
    management control cycle
  • Time series can be segmented by multiple views
    e.g.
  • Product (in the example sales are segmented by
    Product 1 and Product 2)
  • Market (e.g. Sales in China, France, Italy etc.)
  • Customer (e.g. Sales for returning customers, for
    new customers etc.)
  • Plant (Cars produced by Shanghai plant, by Milan
    plant etc.)

15
ES for Management Reporting / dashboard
16
ES for Management DSS
  • Decision Support Systems
  • Support semi-structured decisions where the main
    decision variables are known and can be
    processed e.g.
  • Budgeting systems
  • Financial planning
  • Investment analysis
  • Loan management
  • Etc.

17
ES for Management DSS
18
ES for Operations
  • Nowadays ES support the whole operations cycle
  • Operations Planning e.g. Define the production
    plan of a plant
  • Execution e.g. Record a car delivered, reserve a
    seat on a plane etc.
  • Monitoring e.g. Track the position and status of
    a shipment
  • Control e.g. Analyze the service level to the
    dealers

19
ES for Operations Planning (SAP)
  • Planning implies
  • To define the objectives of an action (e.g. cars
    to be produced)
  • To identify resources needed (e.g. materials to
    be used)
  • To balance the set of resources (e.g. materials,
    manpower, machinery)
  • Planning systems improve performance of
    operations because
  • They define feasible execution
  • They can assure punctuality and optimal resource
    usage

20
ES for Operations Planning (SAP)
21
ES for Operations Execution (hotel booking)
  • Execution implies
  • To collect the data of the transaction to be
    executed
  • To update database accordingly
  • Execution systems simplify and shorten
    operations
  • By reducing / eliminating paperwork
  • By coordinating interdependent tasks and
    activities

22
ES for Operations Execution (hotel booking)
23
ES for Operations Monitoring (shipping)
  • Monitoring implies
  • To track the status of a certain object or
    service
  • To undertake immediate actions in front of alarms
  • Monitoring systems assure the promise in the
    business processes e.g.
  • To receive on time the freight the customer
    ordered
  • To receive the car the customer ordered

24
ES for Operations Monitoring (shipping)
25
ES for Operations Control (Project)
  • Control implies
  • To know the status of a certain activity at a
    given time
  • To appraise results against Information Systems
    for Operations Control (Project case study)
  • Control systems check the promise e.g.
  • Measure the deviance from expected results
  • Can identify the reasons why
  • Can help to find correction

26
ES for Operations Control (Project)
27
ES for Operations Information Management (BOM)
  • Information management implies to define data
    (typically master data) and parameters used in
    operations execution e.g.
  • To define the data of raw materials
  • To define the layout of a warehouse
  • Information management improves the accuracy of
    execution systems e.g.
  • To provide more information to a patient
  • To provide more information on a material

28
ES for Operations Information Management (BOM)
29
ES for operations a real life example
The whole range of Planning, Execution,
Monitoring, Control activities is (and has to be)
found in operations support systems as in the
Materials Management example here below
30
Objectives Business perspective Application
perspective Technology perspective Implications Re
view questions
  • Enterprise Systems Foundations

31
Introduction
  • In the functional perspective
  • We consider what ES do
  • We do not consider how ES is implemented
  • Specifically we target
  • The ES functional structure ( architecture)
  • The taxonomy of ES processing functions
  • The ES information structure
  • The taxonomy of ES information
  • The approach by which ES functional
    characteristics are defined

32
ES structure
  • An ES is a collection of functions that access
    databases / data warehouse to read, change,
    insert or delete records
  • Function
  • A self-contained action on database that can be
    started independently e.g.
  • Book a flight
  • It contains a number of tasks e.g.
  • Log-in
  • Select the flight
  • Input personal data
  • Input payment data
  • Confirm payment
  • Database (DB)
  • Stores permanent information structured according
    to a predefined format (e.g. tables or cubes)
  • Contains a set of records, i.e. tuples e.g. a row
    in a relational table

33
ES Function Classes
  • An ES includes various function classes i.e.
  • Installation that are used by IT professionals to
    install the software application
  • User functions that execute the activities
    performed by users
  • Administration functions that are used by
    professionals who are in charge of running and
    maintaining the application

User
34
ES information classes
An ES includes a wide range of information that
be classified according to its dynamic properties
into the levels Master, Event, Analysis
CUSTOMER
CUSTOMER ORDER
PRODUCT
ORDERS BY PRODUCT, CUSTOMER, TIME
CALENDAR
Master Information
Event Information
Analysis Information
35
Taxonomy of information information levels
  • Master information
  • Describes structural properties of an object
  • Typically has one key
  • Event information
  • Describes properties of an event or transaction
  • Typically has multiple keys
  • Analysis information
  • Describes time dependent values
  • Typically has multiple keys

36
Taxonomy of information information levels
Customer
Customer
Customer
Customer Order
Product
Order
Product
Product
  • Records the attributes of ecah event (i.e order)
  • One record for each event (i.e. order)

Customer
Orders by Product, Customer, Time
Date
Calendar
Product
Order
  • Records the facts concerning a time series (eg.
    Quantity, Value etc.)
  • The time series is identified by multiple domain
    keys (i.e. customer, order , product)
  • Record structural prioperties (e.g. customer
    address)
  • Exah key identifes an individual in a given
    domain

Date
37
Taxonomy of information examples in different
sectors
Information system Master information Event Information Analysis Information
Warehouse Materials Master Location Master Picking / Storage transactions Operations volumes Inventory turnover
Checking account Customer Master Account Master Balance Transactions Operations volumes Balance trend
Energy billing Customer Master Price list Consumption Bills Consumption trends Customer loyalty
Order processing Customer Master Product Master Price List Orders Invoices Orders analysis Customer loyalty
Services to citizens Citizen Master Service Master Service request Services invoices Service levels Citizen profile
38
ES cross-systems architecture
Infobus (EAI)
  • In a very ideal world an enterprise should store
    all its information in one database.
  • However
  • Over time enterprises independently implement
    interdependent databases
  • Synchronization of information becomes a critical
    problem
  • EAI (Enterprise Application Integration) enables
    synchronization across databases

39
Objectives Business perspective Application
perspective Technology perspective Implications Re
view questions
  • Enterprise Systems Foundations

40
Introduction
  • The business perspective addresses WHAT
    enterprise domains systems should support
  • Business and Management Processes
  • Decisions
  • Information
  • The application perspective addresses WHAT
    systems should in terms of
  • Information to be stored
  • Processing functions to be run and related
    business rules
  • Human computer interface
  • The technology perspective considers HOW systems
    are implemented. Specifically we target
  • The processing tiers
  • The executive architecture

41
Processing tiers Gartners taxonomy
  • From 1992-93 systems are implemented on a
    client-server schema
  • Clients may be more or less fat
  • Fat clients are frequent in smart phone
    applications (see case study)
  • Slim clients are typical of large enterprise
    information systems e.g. CRM

42
Processing tiers three-tier architecture
  • The logic tier may be implemented on multiple
    Application Servers
  • Typically Data Server is implemente on one set of
    machines and therefore may be the critical ring
    of the processing chain

43
The cross-systems architecture
Infobus (EAI)
  • Over time multiple interdependent databases have
    been implemented in enterprises
  • Synchronization of information is becoming a
    problem
  • EAI (Enterprise Application Integration) enables
    synchronization across databases

44
The cross-systems architecture Services
Oriented Architecture

Business Process
Orchestration layer
Executable image of a Business Process

Services
Siebel
CICS

Service Platforms
Applications
Servers
Storage
45
Objectives Business perspective Application
perspective Technology perspective Implications Re
view questions
  • Enterprise Systems Foundations

46
Business perspective implications for the ES
architect
  • The architect
  • Understands enterprise business, organization
    business processes
  • Analyzes business process / organization and
    elicits ES requirements
  • Has to use appropriate frameworks

47
Objectives Business perspective Application
perspective Technology perspective Implications Re
view questions
  • Enterprise Systems Foundations

48
Review questions technology perspective
  • The business perspective what the systems are
    for, i.e. what is the kind the support they can
    give to the enterprise
  • Illustrate the five levels of ES (strategic
    planning, management control, operations
    planning, execution, operations monitoring,
    operations control, information management)
  • Exemplify the five levels on a simple case, e.g.
    a car maker as VW or public body as University
  • The application perspective illustrates what
    systems do regardless their implementation.
  • What is the functional structure of information
    systems?
  • Information systems contain functions for users
    (i.e. user transactions) and functions for
    administration and installation. Please comment.
  • Illustrate the threefold taxonomy of information
    (Master, Event, Analysis) and list information on
    familiar domains e.g. University, Health Care,
    Bank

49
INCIDENT Warehouse ES
Architecture (deployment)
The ware-house
Software
The company
50
Appendix 1 Railways case study
  • Enterprise Systems Foundations

51
The railways case study
  • Mr Motta lives in Pavia, a small city in Northern
    Italy, and wants to go to Florence, where his
    relatives live in a small village not served by
    public transportation.
  • Now, there are no direct connections from Pavia
    to Florence. Thus, Motta shall take the bus to
    the train station, then a local train to Milan,
    and, finally, a fast train from Milan to
    Florence.
  • Motta books the fast train and alerts relatives.
  • However, things do not happen as planned. Because
    of traffic jam, the bus is late, but the local
    train to Milan is late too.
  • Motta is happy, but when the local train arrives
    to Milan the fast train has already left. Motta
    has to go to the ticket counter and change his
    ticket. Relatives in Florence pick up Motta one
    hour late and have to pay additional parking.

52
To-be the stakeholder oriented system
Tr.2184 PV Arrival 9.27 Platform 3
Car Rental
Tr.2184 MI Arrival 10.13 Platform18 Tr.9431 MI
Departure 10.16 Platform 16 If you want to
select later schedules please answer yes to
this sms
Contract n72673 Planned delivery 10.30
Rescheduled delivery 12.35
Mr. Motta will arrive at 13.25 instead of 13.05
53
The architecture overall concept
  • PASS runs as an App on a smart phone
  • Business logic and information on the business
    process run on a server (IRMA)
  • Service systems are accessed via web services
  • Android platform (I-Phone as a potential
    extension)

54
The architecture data
55
Deployment diagram
56
Appendix 2 Modeling layers
  • Enterprise Systems Foundations

57
ES modelling levels
Layer Target Notations Explanation
ASL Aggregate Strategic Layer Aggregate needs List / Grid Needs are aggregate and expressed by simple notations, as grids or lists
RSL Rich Semantic Layer Detailed needs Diagrams Specification languages Needs are detailed and expressed by diagrams RSL is conceptual and independent from implementation
SEI Software Engineering Interface Software Diagrams Specification programming languages Transforms RSL into a notation targeting software engineers In most cases such notation is executable.
58
ES modeling grid
Analysis Layer Analysis Domain Analysis Domain Analysis Domain
Analysis Layer Information Business functions User Interface
Aggregate Strategic Layer (ASL) Business Information Models Business models (e.g. financial mathematical models KPI) Stakeholder / Goal Oriented Conceptual Models
Rich Semantic Layer (RSL) Conceptual Information Models UML BPMN (flow intensive systems) Stakeholder / Goal Oriented Conceptual Models
Software Engineering Interface (SEI) Implementation Frameworks / Platforms Implementation Frameworks / Platforms GUI Implementation Frameworks/ Platforms
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